The development of hotcake products with reduced staling and reduction of microbiological growth : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
Staling and microbiological spoilage are major issues in the market development of
hotcake products. This project is aiming at reduce the staling rate of hotcake product
during storage and review the methods that could be effective in reducing
microbiological spoilage of hotcakes at ambient temperature.
The staling rate was reduced by incorporation of anti-staling ingredients into the
formulation. A combination of anti-staling ingredients including Dimodan PH 320/B-M,
a distilled monoglyceride; DATEM Palsgaard 3502, a Diacetyl Tartaric Acid Ester of
Mono- and Diglycerides; and also Novamyl 10000 BG, a bake stable alpha amylase was
effective to reduce the staling rate of hotcake when incorporate them into the hotcake
formulation. The staling rate of hotcake products was reduced from 0.14N/day to
0.085N/day in commercial trial. In addition, the sensory results indicated the customers
can not perceive a stale hotcake for the new formulation developed in this research and
they also can not perceive the changes between original formulation and the new
Two applicable antimicrobial spoilage approaches were used; these were to increase the
level of calcium propionate preservative and to reduce the oxygen content level to
below 1% using O2 absorber or 100% CO2 in the packaging. The commercial trial
showed decreasing the oxygen content level to less than 1% in the packaging and
increasing the level of preservatives increased the shelf life by 1 or 2 days under the
ambient storage condition used.