Robotic soccer is a complex domain where, rather than hand-coding computer programs to control
the players, it is possible to create them through evolutionary methods. This has been successfully
done before by using genetic programming with high-level genes. Such an approach is, however,
limiting. This work attempts to reduce that limit by evolving control programs using genetic
programming with low-level nodes.
Walker, M. (2002), Evolution of a robotic soccer player, Research Letters in the Information and Mathematical Sciences, 3, 15-23