In many stochastic models, in particular Markov chains in discrete or continuous time and Markov
renewal processes, a Markov chain is present either directly or indirectly through some form of
embedding. The analysis of many problems of interest associated with these models, eg. stationary
distributions, moments of first passage time distributions and moments of occupation time random
variables, often concerns the solution of a system of linear equations involving I – P, where P is the
transition matrix of a finite, irreducible, discrete time Markov chain.
Generalized inverses play an important role in the solution of such singular sets of equations. In this
paper we survey the application of generalized inverses to the aforementioned problems. The
presentation will include results concerning the analysis of perturbed systems and the characterization of
types of generalized inverses associated with Markovian kernels.
Hunter, J.J. (2000), A survey of generalized inverses and their use in stochastic modelling, Research Letters in the Information and Mathematical Sciences, 1, 25-36