Bilingualism and bilingual education : their scope, advantages, disadvantages and the implications for Maori learners : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the Master of Educational Administration (M. Ed. Admin.) degree at Massey University
The thesis examines bilingualism and bilingual education both overseas and in Aotearoa/New Zealand. A Maori total immersion unit in a Wellington city primary school and a secondary bilingual unit in the same city are utilised as case studies to uncover, in more detail, the issues facing bilingual education in this country. International literature, which has particular relevance to Aotearoa/New Zealand, is identified and analysed, and one becomes aware of the variety of models of bilingual education and the numerous forms of bilingualism throughout the world which are duplicated here. It is also interesting to note that although there are similarities in the goals and objectives of bilingual education, the ways in which different schools deliver the objectives may differ. For example, the amount of time teachers spend speaking the second language of the students, which is invariably the main target language, may differ markedly for various bilingual programmes. The thesis also explores the history of bilingual education in Aotearoa/New Zealand since the establishment of the first Mission school in 1816. Emphasis is placed on examining the relationships between the Maori and English languages as media for the teaching of Maori children. The rationales for the establishment of bilingual education models in this country are also identified and discussed in relation to the programmes. There is also examination of the perceived advantages and disadvantages of bilingual education. Criteria are identified against which the success or otherwise of bilingual education is measured. The judgements invariably depend on the priorities one places on the different criteria. The detailed focus on the case studies, and intermittent comparisons with other similar models, provide the reader with insights into the issues faced by bilingual education models in Aotearoa/New Zealand.