Influence of commercial proteases on the proteolysis of enzyme modified cheese : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
The influence of four commercial proteases, Protease A, Protease B, Protease C and a two enzyme blend Protease DE, on proteolysis in an enzyme modified cheese (EMC) base has been investigated. Also, a series of preliminary experiments to determine the basic characteristics of the four enzyme preparations in buffer systems has been undertaken. Generally, the exopeptidase activity of the four enzyme preparations was more stable than the endopeptidase activity of the preparations. The highest enzyme activity for all preparations was given at pH 6.5 and Protease B was found to be sensitive to chelating agents. In addition, Protease B was found to contain at least two exopeptidases. Residual protease activities in EMC using a 55% moisture cheese base were found to be 0.005%, 0.009%, 0.007% and 0.004% (w/v) for Protease A, Protease B, Protease C and Protease DE, respectively, following inactivation by heating at 95°C heating for 30 minutes. Under the same incubation conditions (0.15% enzyme at 40°C for 24 h), Protease DE gave greater proteolysis than the three other enzymes and Protease B was the weakest protease. EMC digestion with a combination of proteases was different from that obtained with individual proteases. The combinations of Protease A/Protease C, Protease DE/Protease C, Protease B/Protease C and Protease DE/Protease A showed that the higher the proportion of the former protease in the combinations, the higher the amounts of total amino acids produced in the EMC. The combinations of Protease A/Protease B and Protease B/Protease DE gave greater amounts of total amino acids with the ratio of each enzyme close to 50:50 than with the individual enzymes. With respect to the molecular mass distribution of peptides in the various EMC digestions, Protease DE produced the greatest amount of peptides of 3 or fewer residues and Protease C gave the greatest amount of more medium sized peptides with 11-20 residues. Compared with Protease C, Protease A was more efficient in giving small peptides, while Protease B gave the lowest levels of medium and small peptides, but a high level of free amino acids. In sensory testing, Protease DE produced EMC with a strong pungent and astringent flavour, Protease C gave bitterness, Protease A gave a sweet flavour at a low concentration but bitter flavours with a high concentration and Protease B produced more savoury flavour without bitterness.