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dc.contributor.authorCholidah, Rifana
dc.date.accessioned2014-04-15T21:45:45Z
dc.date.available2014-04-15T21:45:45Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10179/5222
dc.description.abstractObjective: To evaluate the effects of 12 weeks supplementation with calcium and vitamin D fortified milk on vitamin D status and bone turnover markers; osteocalcin and C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen, of active, healthy premenopausal women aged 30-45 years old in Palmerston North, New Zealand. Methods: The study was a repeated measure design. Forty three premenopausal women were recruited. Participants received two daily servings (2 x 30 g) of fortified milk (1200 mg/d calcium and 10 μg/d vitamin D) over 12 weeks. Anthropometric characteristics were measured for screening by body mass index and bone density measurement. Dietary information was collected using an estimated 3-day food record and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were taken for a screening blood test and to measure plasma 25(OH)D3, interleukin-6, and bone turnover markers; C telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx) and osteocalcin. Usual physical activity levels were estimated using the SPARC short-form New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaires in face-to-face interviews and were objectively measured using accelerometers in a self-selected group of 25 women. Results: A significant increase in plasma 25(OH)D3 was found (from 69.75 ± 15.87 nmol/L at baseline to 87.83 ± 19.06 at week 12, mean ± standard deviation; p-value <.0001). There were significant reductions in the levels of CTx (0.31 ± 0.12 to 0.21 ± 0.09 μg/L, p-value <.0001) and osteocalcin (22.63 ± 6.64 to 19.64 ± 6.25 μg/L, p-value 0.0003). Dietary calcium intake was 1013 ± 367 mg/day and vitamin D intake was 3.9 ± 2.1 μg/day. The duration of physical activity in the questionnaire and accelerometer were 115 ± 74 and 415 ± 319 (light physical activity), 208 ± 225 and 289 ± 143 (moderate physical activity) and 126 ± 130 and 59 ± 61 minutes (vigorous physical activity) respectively. Conclusion: Calcium and vitamin D fortified milk supplementation improved vitamin D status and decreased bone turnover markers in active premenopausal women aged 30-45 years old over a period of 12 weeks.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMassey Universityen_US
dc.rightsThe Authoren_US
dc.subjectFortified milken
dc.subjectVitamin D in nutritionen
dc.subjectPremenopausal womenen
dc.subjectCalcium in nutritionen
dc.subjectBone turnover markersen
dc.titleEffect of calcium and vitamin D fortified milk on bone markers and vitamin D status of active, premenopausal women in Palmerston North, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealanden
dc.typeThesisen
thesis.degree.disciplineHuman Nutritionen
thesis.degree.grantorMassey Universityen
thesis.degree.levelMastersen
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science (M.Sc.)en


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