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Massey Research Online is an open access digital archive of the research and scholarship of Massey University and is jointly managed by the University Library and Information Technology Services.

Massey Research Online contains research theses and research outputs including published work by Massey University students and academic staff as well as peer-reviewed material not published elsewhere. In the case of previously published research outputs all requirements of copyright owners are observed.

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An explorative case study of the adaptation process used by an East Coast hill country sheep and beef farmer in New Zealand to cope with climate change : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Agribusiness at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Hollands, Sonia Brooke
North Island East Coast hill country sheep and beef farmers in New Zealand are expected to face increased climate variability due to climate change. Over time the frequency, severity and intensity of adverse weather events such as ex-tropical cyclones, heavy rainfall events and drought will exacerbate resulting in increased uncertainty for farmers. As such, due to the changing climate in a farmer’s operating environment the development of a farmer’s adaptive capacity and their ability to manage and adapt to the impacts of climate change becomes important for sustaining a viable and resilient farming system. However, little is known about how a farmer with high adaptive capacity identifies change in their operating environment and the process they use to adapt their farming system to cope with such impacts. As such, to determine the main attributes associated with a high level of adaptive capacity and provide an understanding of a farmers adaptation process in relation to climate change, an extensive literature review was undertaken. This review helped to develop a conceptual framework that was used to guide this study. The main attributes associated with a high level of adaptive capacity that were identified are an internal locus of control, sense-making capability, capacity to learn to live with change and uncertainty, strategic thinking and planning capability, and high self-efficacy. A single explorative case study of an East Coast hill country sheep and beef farmer exhibiting a high level of adaptive capacity was used to investigate the adaptation process. The process used by the case farmer can be usefully separated into three main stages: 1) a sense-making stage where he; a) scans the operating environment for cues that indicate a change, b) identifies a change in the operating environment in relation to climate change, and c) assesses the nature and the impact of the change on the farm system, and 2) a SWOT analysis and strategy formulation stage where he; a) assesses the opportunities and threats that flow from the identified impacts of the change, b) undertakes an internal analysis and capability assessment to determine if the current suite of strategies can cope with the threats and opportunities, and d) on the basis of the previous step, if required, he formulates a new strategy (or strategies) to adapt to the impacts of the change, and 3) the implementation and control stage where he; a) implements the new strategy and b) monitors and evaluates the implementation of the new strategy. The farmer’s sense-making efforts and analysis of the farm system highlights the importance of gaining a complete understanding of the situation of change and its impact before acting upon it through a decision-making process. Based on such the SWOT analysis, it highlighted that the farmer’s buffer capacity to manage and cope with such impacts of climate change may be adequate in relation to the level of change identified in the operating environment. As such the case farmer identified that his current suite of strategies and associated tactics have the capability of coping with the threats and opportunities identified in relation to climate change on the East Coast. Such study also highlights that the formulation of new strategies is not always necessary and therefore prompts the continuation of making sense of change in his operating environment until he identifies that his suite of strategies are not capable of coping with an increased level of change.
Developing an instrumented scrum machine to measure strength and stability performance : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Jones, Euan Patrick
Over the last two decades, there has been plenty of research involving an instrumented scrum machine to understand the forces and biomechanics during the scrum. A lot of the research was aimed at understanding and reducing the risk of injury, which led to significant changes to the scrum and its rules. There was a clear gap in understanding the relationship between the forces in the vertical and horizontal planes of motion during a scrum sustained push. There was also a gap in the research on measuring a player’s ability to control force in the vertical plane of motion to indicate stability. A new, prototype, a single-man scrum machine was developed to examine these gaps in the research and provide new measurements of strength and stability performance. Two experiments were carried out on the new scrum machine to provide enough data from four participants. From the resulting data, the conclusion was made that there is a strong positive linear relationship between the vertical and horizontal forces produced in the scrum. There was also enough evidence to conclude that the new scrum machine could measure a player’s ability to control the vertical force as they pushed. While also completing the aims of this research, the work completed in this project has opened new opportunities for further development around this topic.
“Our voice needs to be heard” : the impact of contract changes on clients of child and family services : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Gardiner, Blake
Caregivers of children balance unique complexities, dealing with their own personal commitments while often engaging with multiple agencies providing services to them and the children in their care. Child and family services that support caregivers and children are funded and contracted by the State through a process known as procurement where the State awards funding contracts to different community agencies. These funding contracts are susceptible to changes which can have profound impacts on caregivers’ lives. Contract changes occur when the State, holding decision-making power over the contract, makes contract alterations or funds another community agency for the contracted service. This qualitative-exploratory study aimed to explore how caregiver clients of State-funded community child and family services are impacted when contracts change resulting in a change of service for the client. This research found that clients’ needs were not accurately addressed or met within current procurement practice; communication and support for clients was lost during times of contract change; and there was a lack of available opportunity for clients to engage in a meaningful way with contract decision-making. These experiences resulted from mechanisms of neoliberalism, agency accountability to the State, and the current procurement approach which significantly impacted clients’ experiences. The findings highlighted that clients significantly impacted by contract changes are fully aware of this impact but felt their voices were ignored, keeping any contract decision-making out of their control. Further research exploring clients’ exclusion from decision-making and feedback provision would provide deeper insight into the systemic elements that inhibit clients sharing their voice when they have concerns about the support they receive. Finally, further research with a larger sample size would be of great benefit as this would provide a fuller picture of how contract changes impact on clients’ experiences of services.
Measurement of spatial distribution of cattle dung under high and low stocking densities using remote sensing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agricultural Science at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Dewhurst, Zachary
Regenerative pasture management is increasingly being practiced in New Zealand and encompassing a range of principles which generally focus on using diverse plant species to maximise photosynthesis and strategically use grazing livestock, with an overall aim of improving soil health. An example of regenerative pasture management is undertaken on Mangarara Farm, a non-irrigated sheep and beef farm located in Elsthorpe in central Hawkes Bay. Mangarara farm focuses on having higher pre and post-grazing pasture biomass than more conventional practices and grazes these pastures at higher stocking density. In theory, this grazing practice leads to more pasture trampling into the ground and more even dung distribution than conventional grazing practices. A new measurement method was developed in this study to test whether there is a change in the spatial distribution of cattle dung under regenerative management compared to conventional management. This method used a drone fitted with a red, green and blue (RGB) camera to identify and spatially map dung patches following grazing in a defined area (cells) on Mangarara farm. The research trial compared conventional and regenerative management using low and high stocking density. The control grazing (conventional) had a low stocking density of 6 Angus heifers moved every four days. In comparison, regenerative grazing had a high stocking density of 57 Angus heifers moved multiple times daily. The novel drone method was validated against a systematic measurement approach to assess the accuracy of the drone in detecting dung patches, compared to the systematic manual marking of dung patches using a survey-grade Trimble GPS to manually mark every dung patch within the cell. The results showed that the drone detected for all cells a mean of 57% of the dung patches within the cells. Data analysis revealed that multiple key factors affected the drone accuracy, including trees, pasture height and the amount of bare soil and it is recommended that lower pasture height and less bare soil present will minimise variation in future measurements. The same drone method was then used to compare the spatial distribution of dung under regenerative and conventional management. The results showed a significant difference between the median number of dung patches/ha for regenerative and conventional management. The analysis showed that the dung was not randomly distributed throughout the cell and that the regenerative management had slightly less clustering than the conventional management, indicating that the dung was more evenly distributed through the cell under regenerative management. The results from this study have shown that a drone fitted with an RGB camera successfully detected the spatial distribution of dung. However, some key limitations were identified, including wet soil conditions, bare soil and pasture height, which made it difficult to identify the dung due to a lack of colour contrast with the pasture and/or muddy soils. Dung with a higher liquid content was also difficult to delineate as one or several dung patches. Despite these limitations, this novel drone fitted with an RGB camera method offers a cheaper alternative to the traditional labour-intensive method of measuring dung distribution via the grid method and provides scope to measure dung distribution under a range of topographies such as hill country. This new method provides an opportunity for more research on the distribution of dung under different grazing management conditions and offers the potential to improve our understanding of soil nutrient distribution and nutrient loss risk.
Dancing and laughing : women’s narratives of becoming single again at midlife in Aotearoa/New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Perrin, Aileen
This research project had as it focus the narratives of women becoming single again at midlife. Heteronormativity coerces our complicity in gendered power relations of domination and subordination, and in particular, through the institution of marriage. Women not in long term relationships are often marginalised, with single women positioned as outsiders. This research used a relational narrative methodology to bring together the voices of six single again women in a counter narrative of our becoming. Through the analysis, three processes of becoming were identified that moved our becoming from painful memories into stories of living joyously and flourishing: reckoning, embracing freedom, and embodying new spaces joyfully.