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Massey Research Online is an open access digital archive of the research and scholarship of Massey University and is jointly managed by the University Library and Information Technology Services.

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The metabolic health of New Zealand vegans : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics, Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2024) Hill, Lucie
Background: The popularity of a vegan diet is growing in New Zealand. Though there are potential nutrient deficiencies in a vegan diet, it is generally accepted that a vegan diet has greater metabolic benefits than a Western-style diet. Objectives: This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the metabolic health status and dietary intake of adults who had been consuming a vegan diet for 2+ years. Methods: Data were collected from The Vegan Health Research Programme. Participants completed questionnaires on demographic information, dietary practices and supplement use and a four-day food diary. Participants gave a blood sample for analysis of HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, Chol/HDL ratio, triglycerides and omega-3 index. Blood pressure, waist and hip circumference measurements were taken and body composition was measured using DXA. Results: Participants (N=212) had a mean (SD) age of 39.5 (12.4) years and were predominantly female (73.1%). Mean (SD) metabolic health markers of HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, Chol/HDL ratio, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference were all within normal ranges. Females had a normotensive mean (SD) systolic blood pressure of 114.2 (12.9) mmHg and males were just above the low-risk normotensive category at 124.4 (12.0) mmHg. The mean (SD) omega-3 index result of 3.1 (1.2) placed most participants (86.3%) in the high-risk category for heart disease. Saturated fat intakes for males and females were 8.1% and 9.1% of energy, within the recommended range of 8-10% of energy. Dietary fibre intakes were high, at mean (SD) 55.0 (17.8) g/day for males and 43.4 (12.8) g/day for females. Conclusion: This is the first New Zealand study to examine the metabolic health and dietary intake of adult vegans. The results of metabolic health markers indicate that the vegan diet may confer cardioprotective benefits. The low omega-3 index of most participants is concerning, and warrants longitudinal research to assess the level of risk conferred by a low omega-3 index result in a population with no other metabolic risk factors. Dietary intake data shows the population is consuming saturated fat within the recommended range and high amounts of dietary fibre, which may go some way towards explaining the metabolic health status of the participants.
Sister cities, museums, and culturally diverse communities : a pathway to strengthening inclusive community engagement by local government and museums for Asian New Zealanders : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Museum Studies at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Lo, Karyn K.
Sister cities are long-term, community-driven international partnerships between local governments. They promote opportunities for meaningful community engagement through cultural exchanges, economic activities, and resource sharing. Communities in Aotearoa New Zealand are increasingly becoming culturally diverse and complex, and populations such as Asian migrants and Asian New Zealanders are rapidly growing. The strategic goals of museums, particularly those linked to local governments, include actively connecting and engaging with their culturally diverse communities. This thesis examines two case studies with established sister city relationships and community focused museums linked with local governments. Sister city activities between Porirua City and Lower Hutt City in New Zealand and counterparts Nishio City and Minoh City in Japan have brought unique opportunities for citizens of these cities. Cultural institutions Pātaka Art + Museum and The Dowse Art Museum have legacies of public programming and exhibitions for the community. By analysing archival documentation, interviews with key participants, and maintaining a critical socio cultural approach through forms of narrative inquiry, this research aims to better understand the potential of sister cities for the community and the heritage sector. In this context, a counter narrative reveals the growth and increasing relevance of responding to the cultural diversity in New Zealand communities including Asian New Zealanders. Within the two case studies, evidence shows that sister cities are existing community-based resources that encourage unique community activities to flourish. Part of the early sister city movement in New Zealand in the 1990s, they were pathways for local governments and museums to utilise for meaningful community engagement through cultural, educational, and economic activities. These were strengthened by collaboration between committed leaders in local government, cultural institutions, and community organisations. Furthermore, people-to-people connections and trust-building were essential for cultural and economic community outcomes to flow. This thesis argues that these outcomes are shared objectives that strengthen community engagement, and sister cities could be effectively utilised by local governments and affiliated community-focused museums to support culturally diverse communities. Currently, however, New Zealand museums and local governments do not fully utilise the potential of sister cities despite their commitment to these communities.
Determining the relative validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing nutrient intakes against Four-Day Food Diaries (4DFDs) of New Zealand adults following a vegan diet : the thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Hassall, Catherine
Background: In recent years, veganism has gained traction in developed countries. A vegan diet eliminates animal products and animal by-products including milk, yoghurt, cheese, eggs, honey and gelatine. It is often adopted for animal welfare, environmental concern and associated health benefits. As the vegan diet becomes increasingly more common, a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is needed for future research regarding the health benefits and risks of the vegan diet. To our knowledge the only validated FFQ for the vegan adult population was developed in the USA. This FFQ is unsuitable for use in New Zealand (NZ) due to cultural, ethnic and food supply differences. Aim: This study assesses the relative validity of a semi-quantitative FFQ for assessing nutrients against a four-day diet recall in vegan adults living in Auckland, New Zealand. Methods: As a part of The Vegan Health Research Programme, a convenience sample of adults aged >18 years whom had adopted a vegan diet for a minimum of two years, were recruited for a cross-sectional observational study. Participants (n=167) completed both a four-day food diary (4DFD) and FFQ, which were compared for the relative validity of 31 nutrients. Relative validity was assessed using correlation coefficients, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank test, cross classification and weighted kappa statistic, linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. All 31 nutrients underwent energy adjustment. Results: Correlation coefficients improved after energy adjustment with values ranging from 0.116 – 0.661. Out of the 31 nutrients, 25 showed improvement in correlation after energy adjustment. Following this, 12 energy-adjusted nutrients were correctly classified (i.e. >50% correctly classified). After energy adjustment, weighted kappa analysis moderately improved the outcomes with values ranging from lowest value 0.149 (caffeine) to highest value 1.10 (vitamin B6 and vitamin E). Of the 31 nutrients assessed, 24 had higher mean intakes in the 4DFD compared to the FFQ. In Bland-Altman and linear regression, the slope of bias was statistically significant (p-value 0.05). For energy adjusted nutrients (n=17), saturated fat (SFA), poly-unsaturated fat (PUFAS), sugars, riboflavin, phosphorus, and iron were non-significant, indicating that the measurement differences between FFQ and 4DFD were not significantly dependent on mean nutrient intakes. Conclusion: Despite nutrients iodine, vitamin B6, total folate, niacin equivalents and niacin showing poor correlations, the FFQ was reasonably accurate at measuring relative validity of the remaining 26 nutrients. However, it is noteworthy the FFQ tended to underreported on most nutrients compared to the 4DFD. This FFQ could be used in future research to assess the relative intake of nutrients of adult vegans living in NZ. However, it should not be used to assess absolute nutrient intakes.
Bone density and dietary calcium in New Zealand vegans : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
(Massey University, 2024) Clark, Abril
The restrictive aspect of a vegan dietary pattern warrants attention, as it may lead to individuals unknowingly obtaining low intakes of calcium. Moreover, several international studies have reported low calcium intakes in vegans. Furthermore, prolonged low calcium intakes can result in reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. In older adults, a calcium deficiency will exacerbate bone loss as ageing is associated with a decline in BMD. Moreover, pregnant women are at increased risk of developing a calcium deficiency due to the increased demands of calcium that is required for the growth of foetal bone. The evidence of a vegan diet impacting BMD have been inconclusive in the literature, therefore further research is required to understand bone health of vegans. Especially, in the context of NZ vegan adults as the measurement of bone parameters and calcium intakes have not been investigated in this population. Objectives: To describe calcium intake and bone health of NZ adults following a vegan diet. Methods: This cross-sectional study included adults (N=212) (>18yrs), who followed a vegan diet for more than 2 years. Demographic and lifestyle information was obtained from questionnaires. A 4-day food record was completed for analysis of calcium, zinc, protein, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin C intake and compared to the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR). Weight, height and BMI were obtained, BMD was measured at the hip and spine using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and reported as Z-scores. Participants were categorised based on BMD Z scores stratified as follows: low BMD (for age and sex) <-2.0 and normal BMD >-2.0. Blood samples were taken for PTH, 25(OH)D and plasma calcium concentrations were corrected for albumin. All values are presented as mean and standard deviation. Differences in bone parameters between BMD groups were analysed using multiple T-tests. A linear regression analysis examined the association between calcium intake, corrected calcium concentrations, serum PTH levels, BMI, and physical activity levels and BMD Z scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Results: Overall, Z scores at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were -0.29 ± 1.12 and -0.24 ± 0.89), respectively. Corrected calcium concentrations were 2.21 ± 0.33 mmol/L. Overall, calcium intake was 917 ± 347.23 (range 195 to 2,429 mg/day). The main source of calcium in the vegan diet was tofu and plant-based milks. The intake of protein (77 ± 27.80) g/day, magnesium (569 ± 181.05) mg/day, and vitamin C (145 ± 96.94) mg/day met the EAR, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements. However, the intake of phosphorus (1,472 ± 459.98) mg/day and zinc (10.6 ± 4.01) mg/day were below the EAR. Only BMI significantly predicted BMD Z-scores at the lumber spine (P = 0.004) and femoral neck (P = 0.003). Conclusion: The study found that most vegans had normal BMD for their age and sex, adequate calcium intakes and bone homeostasis markers. Despite mean intake of calcium exceeding the EAR, very low intakes demonstrated significant variations between participants. Tofu was identified as the main plant-based source of calcium amongst participants. Moreover, longitudinal research is required to understand the long-term impact of a vegan diet on bone health.
Tāngata whaiora / service user perspectives on the effectiveness of a DBT residential treatment programme : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Aotearoa New Zealand
(Massey University, 2023) Furness, Emma Kathryn
The perspectives of tāngata whaiora / service users who have been treated with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) in a residential programme in Aotearoa New Zealand were explored to determine which interventions and programme elements were effective and ineffective. People who are typically referred to a DBT residential programme are managing severe and chronic mental distress, use mental health services frequently with complex and multiple mental health diagnoses. This was a qualitative study with the aims of giving tāngata whaiora / service users a voice and provide opportunities for clinicians to enhance their service delivery. The foundations of the study were based on community and clinical psychological epistemologies, and predominantly social constructionist theory. Data was gathered via in-depth interviews with five participants who had been through the programme and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis (TA). Analysis of the data resulted in three main themes and two subthemes that centred around three domains. These domains were related to clinical DBT interventions, environmental and other factors that are not typically assessed when looking at treatment effectiveness, and relationship quality. The results supported much of the international and local literature that explores service user perspectives. The findings from this study appeared to show that DBT was useful to clients particularly learning and practicing DBT skills. Non-clinical interventions and environmental factors also made a difference, such as time in nature and doing recreational activities as a group. Healthy relationships, including those with peers, support networks, and professionals were vital contributors to any resulting wellbeing, and reciprocity and kindness in professional relating increased trust and aided in turning points. Offsite support to consolidate skill use in the community and establish new identities was valued, and a greater focus on physical health and other non-clinical supports such as secure housing is recommend.