Welcome to Massey Research Online

Massey Research Online is an open access digital archive of the research and scholarship of Massey University and is jointly managed by the University Library and Information Technology Services.

Massey Research Online contains research theses and research outputs including published work by Massey University students and academic staff as well as peer-reviewed material not published elsewhere. In the case of previously published research outputs all requirements of copyright owners are observed.

Items in Massey Research Online are fully indexed and searchable on Google Scholar and NZ Research.

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Recent Submissions

Locking down the Impact of New Zealand's COVID-19 Alert Level Changes on Pets.
(MDPI (Basel, Switzerland), 2021-03-10) Esam F; Forrest R; Waran N; Williams JM; Randle H; Marlin D
The influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on human-pet interactions within New Zealand, particularly during lockdown, was investigated via two national surveys. In Survey 1, pet owners (n = 686) responded during the final week of the five-week Alert Level 4 lockdown (highest level of restrictions-April 2020), and survey 2 involved 498 respondents during July 2020 whilst at Alert Level 1 (lowest level of restrictions). During the lockdown, 54.7% of owners felt that their pets' wellbeing was better than usual, while only 7.4% felt that it was worse. Most respondents (84.0%) could list at least one benefit of lockdown for their pets, and they noted pets were engaged with more play (61.7%) and exercise (49.7%) than pre-lockdown. Many respondents (40.3%) expressed that they were concerned about their pet's wellbeing after lockdown, with pets missing company/attention and separation anxiety being major themes. In Survey 2, 27.9% of respondents reported that they continued to engage in increased rates of play with their pets after lockdown, however, the higher levels of pet exercise were not maintained. Just over one-third (35.9%) of owners took steps to prepare their pets to transition out of lockdown. The results indicate that pets may have enjoyed improved welfare during lockdown due to the possibility of increased human-pet interaction. The steps taken by owners to prepare animals for a return to normal life may enhance pet wellbeing long-term if maintained.
The Efficacy of New Zealand Greenshell™ Mussel Powder Supplementation in Supporting Muscle Recovery Following Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Healthy, Untrained Adult Males
(MDPI (Basel, Switzerland), 2023-05-15) Lomiwes D; Barnes M; Shaw O; Ngametua N; Sawyer G; Burr N; Hedderley D; Kanon A; Bear T; Carroll A; Bentley_Hewitt K; Tian HS; Miller MR; Nieman DC
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise results in muscle damage limiting physical performance for several days. This study investigated if Greenshell™ mussel (GSM) powder consumption expedited muscle recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Methods: Twenty untrained adult men were recruited into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study and were randomly assigned to receive the GSM powder or placebo treatment first. Participants consumed their allocated intervention for four weeks then completed a bench-stepping exercise that induced muscle damage to the eccentrically exercised leg. Muscle function, soreness and biomarkers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and inflammation were measured before exercise, immediately after exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post exercise. GSM powder promoted muscle function recovery, significantly improving (p < 0.05) isometric and concentric peak torque at 48 h and 72 h post exercise, respectively. Participants on the GSM treatment had faster dissipation of soreness, with significant treatment × time interactions for affective (p = 0.007) and Visual Analogue Scale-assessed pain (p = 0.018). At 72 h, plasma creatine kinase concentrations in the GSM group were lower (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo group. This study provides evidence for GSM powder being effective in supporting muscle recovery from EIMD.
Knowledge of Osteoporosis and Lifestyle Behaviours Impacting Peak Bone Mass among Young Adults
(LIDSEN Publishing Inc., 2021-01-11) Patel H; Denison H; Zafar S; Teesdale-Spittle P; Dennison E; Marks R
Osteoporosis is a major public health problem through its association with fragility fracture. Low peak bone mass (PBM) is a major contributor to later osteoporosis risk. Despite this, most studies concentrate on older people when the window of opportunity to impact PBM has passed. This study aimed to understand what adolescents and young adults understand about PBM, the risk of osteoporotic fracture and how lifestyle factors impact PBM. Such information may inform educational interventions to reduce future risk of fracture, and provide important public health benefits. New Zealand university students were approached to participate in this study. Nine focus groups of a total of 44 adolescents and young adults, mean age 22.9 (± 4.02) years of different ethnicities (29 female 15 male), were conducted using a semi-structured approach with open-ended questions and prompts. Transcripts were thematically coded using an inductive content analysis approach. Participants reported poor knowledge of PBM and factors impacting risk of osteoporotic fracture. There was a general awareness of the positive and negative impacts of many lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity, diet, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on health in general, but not specifically how these impact PBM and good bone health in later life. We conclude that in a cohort of New Zealand University students, current knowledge of osteoporosis and lifestyle factors that impact PBM is limited. Educational interventions in young adults are now warranted to improve PBM and prevent osteoporosis in late adulthood.
Changes in Skeletal Muscle Protein Metabolism Signaling Induced by Glutamine Supplementation and Exercise.
(MDPI (Basel, Switzerland), 2023-11-07) Rodrigues Junior CF; Murata GM; Gerlinger-Romero F; Nachbar RT; Marzuca-Nassr GN; Gorjão R; Vitzel KF; Hirabara SM; Pithon-Curi TC; Curi R; Lemon PWR
AIM: To evaluate the effects of resistance exercise training (RET) and/or glutamine supplementation (GS) on signaling protein synthesis in adult rat skeletal muscles. METHODS: The following groups were studied: (1) control, no exercise (C); (2) exercise, hypertrophy resistance exercise training protocol (T); (3) no exercise, supplemented with glutamine (G); and (4) exercise and supplemented with glutamine (GT). The rats performed hypertrophic training, climbing a vertical ladder with a height of 1.1 m at an 80° incline relative to the horizontal with extra weights tied to their tails. The RET was performed three days a week for five weeks. Each training session consisted of six ladder climbs. The extra weight load was progressively increased for each animal during each training session. The G groups received daily L-glutamine by gavage (one g per kilogram of body weight per day) for five weeks. The C group received the same volume of water during the same period. The rats were euthanized, and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from both hind limbs were removed and immediately weighed. Glutamine and glutamate concentrations were measured, and histological, signaling protein contents, and mRNA expression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Supplementation with free L-glutamine increased the glutamine concentration in the EDL muscle in the C group. The glutamate concentration was augmented in the EDL muscles from T rats. The EDL muscle mass did not change, but a significant rise was reported in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the fibers in the three experimental groups. The levels of the phosphorylated proteins (pAkt/Akt, pp70S6K/p70S6K, p4E-BP1/4E-BP1, and pS6/S6 ratios) were significantly increased in EDL muscles of G rats, and the activation of p4E-BP1 was present in T rats. The fiber CSAs of the EDL muscles in T, G, and GT rats were increased compared to the C group. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in the 26 proteasome activity of EDL muscles from T rats. CONCLUSION: Five weeks of GS and/or RET induced muscle hypertrophy, as indicated by the increased CSAs of the EDL muscle fibers. The increase in CSA was mediated via the upregulated phosphorylation of Akt, 4E-BP1, p70S6k, and S6 in G animals and 4E-BP1 in T animals. In the EDL muscles from T animals, a decrease in proteasome activity, favoring a further increase in the CSA of the muscle fibers, was reported.
Impact of Corporate Culture on Environmental Performance
(Springer, 2024-05-12) Mabel DC; Opare S
We examine the impact of corporate culture on environmental performance using a sample of 7,199 firm-year observations over the period 2002–2018. We find that stronger corporate culture improves environmental performance, measured by the amount of toxic chemical release (TCR). Our result is both statistically and economically significant. We also show that cultural norms of innovation, quality and teamwork as well as a technology-oriented corporate culture have a greater impact on enhancing environmental performance. Further analyses show that managerial competence and strong institutional ownership moderate the relationship between corporate culture and environmental performance. We introduce the decomposition of expected and unexpected components of TCR and document that firms with a strong corporate culture implement strategies to reduce the unexpected component of TCR in addition to the expected component of TCR. Finally, we document that strong corporate culture and environmental performance improve firms’ financial performance. Our results are robust to several sensitivity tests and procedures to mitigate endogeneity and self-selection problems. From a practical point of view, our findings suggest that a firm’s culture can determine its environmental sustainability and ethical practices.