Milk and dairy product composition

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
The first section of this chapter provides detailed information on the composition of animal milks used for human consumption, including milk from both major dairy species (cow, buffalo, goat and sheep) and minor species (yak, mithun, musk ox, mare, donkey, dromedary and Bactrian camels, llama, alpaca, reindeer and moose). Macro- and micronutrient contents of milks are given for the various species, mineral and vitamin contents in the milks are compared with the recommended nutrient intakes for children between one and three years old and those suitable for children who are allergic to cow milk are noted. Nutritional claims that would be permitted according to the CODEX Guide to Food Labelling are considered for the various milks. Interspecies differences in protein, fat and lactose contents are highlighted. The contribution of milk to dietary energy, protein and fat in various regions of the world is considered. The effects of feeding and lactation state on milk composition are considered. The second part of the chapter presents less-detailed information on the composition of treated liquid milks and dairy products, including fermented milk products, cheese, butter and ghee, cream and whey products. The current definitions according to the FAO Classifications of Commodities/CODEX are given, together with the impact of processing on nutrient profiles. Finally, milk products from milk from underutilized species are presented.
Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition, 2013, pp. 41 - 90