Facilitating Tino Rangatiratanga in Māori sport and recreation : a case study of Māori Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Whātōtō : 'Kaua e mate wheke, me mate Uroroa' Don't die like an octopus, die like a hammerhead shark : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University,Albany, New Zealand

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This thesis examines Tino ‘Rangātiratanga (self-determination) of Māori Sport and Recreation (MS&R) in Aotearoa (New Zealand) in particular Māori Brazilian Jiu Jitsu movement (MBJJ) Whātōtō in Aotearoa. For the purpose of this thesis Sport and ‘recreation acts as a reference to all organized physical and recreational activities inclusive of Whātōtō Māori BJJ movement. Whātōtō is an ancient Māori wrestling pastime; its origins go back to the creation story of ‘Ranginui and Papatuanuku sky father and earth mother. This research does not examine the origins or history of Whātōtō but explores the potential influence Whātōtō Māori BJJ has on the development of Māori sport and recreation and the role of Māori organizations as facilitators of MS&R development. Within the broader development context MS&R‘ development, Māori development and Māori Community Development will be explored within a Māori organizational framework. The theories of Community Development and Empowerment are explored to counteract the further disenfranchising of Tino Rangatiratanga. This will provide a historical context by which a review of multiple challenges MS&R are confronted with in New Zealand’s political, economic, social and cultural environment. The Treaty of Waitangi will be explored as a primary tool to support the case for greater investment and equal representation of Māori not only on the playing field but on all levels of sport and recreation development in Aotearoa. The literature will look at the impacts of institutional racism and racism in sport in New Zealand and how Maori are reorganising and strategizing to empower their whanau, hapu and Iwi aspirations. The research explores Māori philosophies and practices and how these are applied to Maori sport and recreation development. The methodological processes used in this study are Kaupapa Māori theory and grounded theory. The data will be analyzed using grounded theory and content analysis to provide the researcher with themes from which to provide further discussion of the findings in the research.