Theses and Dissertations

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    Animal responders : risks and mitigation strategies : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2023) De Grey, Steven John
    Although disasters are often defined by their effect on the human populace, animals are not spared and are likewise affected. As animal and human welfare are interconnected, in disasters both will be affected and an assault on one will impact the other. Disasters are expected to become more frequent so in order to manage human safety and welfare, we must manage animal safety and welfare. The safest way to respond to animals in emergencies is to use emergency responders trained in animal behaviour and rescue techniques, however there is a lack of knowledge in this domain. This study aims to identify the factors that impact an emergency responder’s health during and after an animal rescue or disaster response and to identify mitigation techniques that can be utilised to enhance their safety and resilience. An anonymous online survey was used to enquire about the responder, the impact of a recent animal-related event and the effectiveness of a selection of mitigation strategies. This study found that a significant proportion of respondents had experienced physical injuries to the arms and hands, with the animal and fatigue being common causative factors. Another finding was that there is a risk of a psychological injury and a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder was likely for some respondents. Despite these risks, the majority of respondents reported that they found the animal rescue event a positive experience. Psychosocial support was found to be an effective recovery technique along with physical or recreational activity, debriefing, and mindfulness. Other mitigation options for both responders and organisations were identified from the literature such as psychological and crew resource management training and the use of the ‘buddy system’. In conclusion, this study adds to the limited literature in this realm and will make a significant contribution to the safety and resilience of trained animal responders.
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    Spirituality and psychology : how psychologists bridge the gap : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2023) Stewart, Julia
    This research sought to understand the experience of psychologists who integrate spirituality into their clinical practice in Aotearoa, New Zealand using intuitive inquiry. This methodology follows a five-cycle hermeneutic approach, with origins in feminist theory, influenced by both transformative and constructivist epistemologies. Seven participants, who met eligibility criteria were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. Three overall themes plus sub-themes were identified, (a) influences outside of Western psychology, (b) practical aspects of clinical integration of spirituality, including sub-themes (i) boundaries, (ii) language and (iii) their role as a psychologist; and (c) felt experience, including sub-themes (i) deepening of clients’ experience and (ii) authenticity, trust and meaningful connection to work. The findings demonstrate the inclusion of spirituality into clinical practice presents both practical and experiential considerations that psychologists in Aotearoa, New Zealand face. While some challenges were identified the experience was overwhelmingly positive, allowing for a deepened connection and passion to work and a belief in more effective and sustained treatment. Further exploration into the integration of spirituality into psychology practice is needed to ensure psychologists are skilled and able to navigate this aspect of clients’ experience.
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    Sing out, feel, and then be the force of change! The important role of protest songs from Calle 13, Residente and iLe in Latin American protest movements during the 21st century = ¡Canta, siente, sé el cambio! El rol importante de las canciones de protesta de Calle 13, Residente e iLe en la protesta latinoamericana durante el siglo XXI : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements in the pursuit of the degree of Master of Arts in Spanish, Massey University - Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa
    (Massey University, 2024) Port, Aengus
    Art, and specifically music, has long been an essential tool in personal self-expression across a range of topics that evoke deep human connection and emotion. Whether it be an artistic expression about love, passion, desire, sadness, grief, loss, anger or the like, music has an ability to bring out the emotive side of people when it comes to affairs that stir the heart. This can be taken in a romantic sense, but also in a sense of what sets people on fire on a daily basis; patriotism to their homeland, politics (for or against policy or style of governance) etc. When the public is frustrated by something, naturally they wish to voice their opposition and dissent to the authorities in the clearest way possible, and song has been a time-honoured way of vocalising the desire for the necessary change happen for the greater public good. In the modern context, music in Latin America has been employed to support political opposition and dissent for many years, most notably by way of the Nueva Canción movement sin the second half of the 20th century. This subject, along with legends of the genre such as Victor Jara, Mercedes Sosa and Violeta Parra, fascinated me whilst I was undertaking my initial journey into the Spanish language, culture and heritage of Spanish-speaking countries. Also, the more current context within Latin America, specifically in Puerto Rico, fascinated me. Thus, this analytical study of various examples of protest song being used as a prime tool for political expression and change from the noted Puerto Rican band Calle 13, along with their ex members Residente and iLe, is a fusion of these two interests and an attempt to expand the field of study around the Nueva Canción movement, so as to see whether this movement of music and song still exists in the current 21st century context and then, if so, whether the way this music is composed and delivered changed in time. The inclusion of examples of academic criticism around this subject within the analysis, for example The Woman in Music (Marianne Kielian-Gilbert, 2000), Performative Acts and Gender Construction (Judith Butler, 1988) and “Performance Interventions” and Gestos Descoloniales (M.A. Sánchez Cabrera, 2016), help to contribute something new into this area of study. This critique is going to create a point of reference and define the context behind the profiled songs. This study is intended to be an investigation into whether the Nueva Canción has changed or whether it has remained the same, albeit different, in the intervening period since its inception and recognition as a powerful subgenre of Latin music.
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    Lived experiences of introverted South Asian women working in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Human Resource Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2023) Tayyab, Mariam
    This qualitative study seeks to magnify the voices of introverted people by exploring the complex interaction of introversion, cultural identity, and work experiences among South Asian women in New Zealand. It seeks an in-depth understanding of the distinctive challenges and opportunities these professionals face throughout their careers. It focuses on attributes frequently ignored in an extroverted-centric society, particularly those linked with being introverted. This study unravels a complicated tapestry of experiences via in-depth interviews with eight introverted South Asian women. The narratives vividly illustrate the profound influence that societal expectations, cultural norms, and beliefs have on work environments. The study reveals vital themes, including a deep desire for solitude and personal space, the need to unwind after social interactions, and feelings of stress in extroverted environments. The study sheds light on participants' coping mechanisms for dealing with the deeply ingrained cultural norms of modesty and respect in South Asian countries. Additionally, it highlights the difficulties introverted South Asian women experience in environments where extroversion is highly valued and where they are frequently viewed as quiet or uninterested. The findings of this study have important implications for organizations and managers to create work cultures that recognize and capitalize on the talents of introverted people. Workplaces should actively encourage diversity, equity, and inclusion by identifying the value of introverted characteristics and understanding prevalent cultural intricacies.
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    Use of the Oslo Sports Trauma and Research Centre overuse questionnaire (OSTRC-O2) to measure the prevalence, incidence and severity of musculoskeletal complaints in pre-professional dance students : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Health Science in Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2024) Conland, Ellena
    Background: Dance is a demanding and athletic artform with training at the pre-professional level featuring intensive workloads. As such, dance training is associated with high risk of injury, however the extent of dance injuries is unclear. Growing evidence suggests that dancers frequently underreport injury, modify their dancing and are likely to ‘dance through’ pain. Objectives: The Oslo Sports Trauma and Research Centre Overuse Injury questionnaire (OSTRC-O2) was used to assess the extent and severity of musculoskeletal complaints among dancers in pre professional training, assessing their impact on performance, dance modifications, and pain levels. Associations between hours spent in dance training and the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries, injured anatomical locations, and additional physical activity were also observed. Methods: In this cohort study, 21 students of a full-time dance-training school in New Zealand (age 17.6 years ± 1.3 years) were surveyed weekly using the online OSTRC-O2 questionnaire. Additional questions quantified the hours spent in class, rehearsals, performance and extra physical activity, and whether participants sought medical attention. The 5-week observation period included the academic term and end of year performances. Results: Total prevalence rate of musculoskeletal complaints across the five weeks was 2.0 per participant, with nearly all (95%) reporting a complaint and 30% having a substantial problem as defined in the OSTRC context. The incidence of musculoskeletal complaints was 9.5 injuries/1000 dance hours. 88% experienced some level of pain while dancing, but most (98%) continued to participate. Lower legs (38%) and feet and toes (26%) were the most reported locations of injury while less than half (45%) of participants sought medical support. There was some evidence of a positive association between the incidence of musculoskeletal complaints and dance hours with dance style, body weight and dance experience suggestive of higher odds of injury in contrast to age and height which were potentially protective. However, no variables were statistically significant. Conclusion: Among élite level pre-professional dancers, the risk of musculoskeletal complaints is high. The OSTRC-O2 questionnaire severity score can be used to monitor ongoing musculoskeletal complaints and the recovery from such complaints. Changes in the OSTRC severity score can inform dancers, teachers and medical clinicians and can be used as an outcome measure. Dancers appear to manage their musculoskeletal complaints independently and are likely to participate while in pain.
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    A rat by any other name : an examination of George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four from an animal studies perspective : a critical and creative thesis presented for MCW 139862 to fulfil the requirements of the Master of Creative Writing, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 7th February 2026
    (Massey University, 2024) Kyrke-Smith, Nick
    There are differing views about animality, the nonhuman and the natural world in the works of George Orwell. This critical/creative master’s thesis takes an animal studies perspective on Orwell’s fiction, focusing primarily on the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, with substantial reference to the short story “Shooting an Elephant”, and the novels Animal Farm, and Coming up for Air. The thesis concludes that the nonhuman is fundamental to Orwell’s political vision, using the insights and perspectives of scholars including Susan McHugh, Piers G. Stephens, Rita Felski and Loraine Saunders. The creative component explores aspects of the human/nonhuman interface in a collection of fiction comprised of seven short stories, engaging with a range of themes. The longest is a speculative story, A rat by any other name, inspired by the function and fictional presence of rats in Nineteen Eighty-Four. The stories explore aspects of human identity; masculinity in Aotearoa New Zealand; linkages with the natural world and its inhabitants, fictional and real; and shifting perceptions of the nonhuman.
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    Dietary calcium intake and food sources in older adults living in Auckland, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2023) Kotewodeyar, Chaitra Arya Gubbi
    BACKGROUND The New Zealand population is aging. Aging notably affects bone health, and maintaining healthy bones is essential for overall mobility and physical function. Maintaining bone health can help alleviate conditions such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Calcium intake is crucial for preserving bone density, muscle function, nerve impulse transmission, and hormonal activities. For older adults, adequate calcium intake is particularly important to mitigate the risk of osteoporosis and fractures, which are common in this age group. Despite its importance, many older adults often fail to meet the recommended dietary intake of calcium, leading to significant health implications. Dietary calcium can be obtained from various food sources, including dairy products, leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, and fortified foods. Among these dairy products are the most significant contributors to calcium intake in Western diets. However, there is limited data regarding calcium intake and food sources of calcium in older New Zealand adults. AIM This research aims to investigate calcium intake and to identify the main food items contributing to calcium intake in community-dwelling older adults (65 to 74 years) living in Auckland, New Zealand. METHODS This sub-study was undertaken as part of the REACH (Researching Eating, Activity and Cognitive Health) study, a cross-sectional study investigating dietary patterns, cognitive health and metabolic syndrome in older adults aged 65-74 years living in Auckland, New Zealand. A 4-day food diary was used to assess dietary calcium intake, and food sources contributing to calcium intake. Socio-demographic details, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, were comprehensively recorded. Anthropometric data was collected including height and weight. Body Mass Index (BMI) was subsequently calculated based on the formula weight (kg) / height (m²). RESULTS The REACH study encompassed 371 individuals, with food diaries available for 330 participants (114 males, and 216 females). The average energy intake for males was 9374 kj/day, whereas for females, it was 7450 kj/day. Calcium intake was 877mg/day for females and 997 mg/day for males, compared with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) of 1100mg/day. For females 65-69 years, 30% consumed less than the EAR. This percentage was 21% for females 70-74 years, and 10 % and 12% for males 65-69 and 70-74 years, respectively. The main food source of calcium was milk and milk products for the total population (providing 273mg/day in females and 342mg of calcium/day in males), followed by cheese (157mg/day in females and 173mg/day in males), and yogurt (93mg/day in females and 127mg/day males). CONCLUSION Findings from this study reflect a high prevalence of inadequate dietary calcium intakes, particularly in females aged 65 to 74 years living in Auckland, New Zealand. Dairy products provided the most calcium within these participants’ diets. Further research is needed to determine appropriate ways to optimize the calcium intake in older adults who have a low intake of calcium.
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    Kia rauka I te tūranga memeitaki no te iti tangata ānuanua o te Kuki Airani = Towards attaining holistic wellbeing for the Rainbow community of the Cook Islands : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in International Development, Massey University, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2024) Wichman, Valentino (Valery) Tefa'atau
    Kia Orana and welcome to this scholarly exploration of Tūranga Memeitaki, or Wellbeing, within the Ānuanua, or Rainbow, Community of the Cook Islands, guided by the principles of Akapapa’anga (genealogies) and Kai Vānanga (elevated conversations). This thesis is a deliberate endeavor to shed light on the experiences of a unique and often marginalized community. It aims to address the question of what is Tūranga Memeitaki for the Ānuanua community? Grounded in the Akapapa'anga methodology, which delves into the intricate web of relationships and connections among individuals and groups, this research employs Māori genealogical analysis to unearth the nuanced dimensions of Tūranga Memeitaki within the Ānuanua community. By drawing upon family trees, oral traditions, historical records, and diverse information sources, this approach offers a comprehensive understanding of the community's wellbeing dynamics. To navigate the sensitive nature of discussions and the subject matter concerning the Ānuanua community, a novel method known as Kai Vānanga Vatavata has been developed. Inspired by other Pacific approaches, this method has been customized to accommodate the specific needs and concerns of marginalized communities, ensuring respectful and culturally appropriate data collection and interpretation. Throughout the enquiry, the Kai Vānanga Vatavata method has undergone continuous refinement to optimize its efficacy in capturing the diverse perspectives and experiences within the Ānuanua community. Given the distinct challenges faced by LGBTQ+ communities worldwide, a nuanced understanding of Tūranga Memeitaki for the Ānuanua community holds significant implications for addressing these challenges effectively. The research methodology incorporated interviews, focus groups, and literature analysis to explore the multifaceted dimensions of wellbeing and its impact on holistic human experience. By engaging directly with members of the Ānuanua community, this study aims to amplify their voices, illuminate their narratives, and contribute to the development of tailored policy solutions and research recommendations aimed at enhancing their overall wellbeing. The principal outcomes derived from the Kai Vānanga Vatavata highlight the imperative of conducting research that is culturally relevant and led by Ānuanua for Ānuanua. It underscores the urgency of ceasing the compartmentalization or 'othering' of the Ānuanua community, recognizing resilience and beyond both within this community and more broadly, and transitioning from a focus on wellbeing to an emphasis on wholebeing.
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    The poetry sequence as sustained meditation : a critical and creative thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Creative Writing at Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa Massey University, Albany, Aotearoa New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 8th February 2026
    (Massey University, 2024) Thorstensen, Nicola Christine
    This thesis examines the poetry sequence as sustained meditation. It uses two investigative methods: a critical essay and a poetry manuscript containing four discrete sequences and an epilogue. It explores, both creatively and critically, how a sequence works, what holds it together. The critical essay (30 percent) examines poetry sequences by two contemporary Aotearoa New Zealand poets: “Reprogramming the heart” from Helen Heath’s collection Are friends electric? and “Tender” from Janet Newman’s collection Unseasoned Campaigner. Each sequence comprises a female speaker’s contemplation of loss and grief, which seemed apt as correlatives to my creative work. I analyse how the poems speak to one another via repeated images and motifs to operate as sequences, creating a whole greater than the constituent poems. Specifically, in both cases, the echoing images and motifs support the development of extended elegies, with an emphasis on a version of the traditional movement from lament to consolation in Heath and an emphasis in Newman on a contemporary version of the elegy’s traditional praise movement, one that declines to idealise. My poetry manuscript (70 percent) explores two connected family tragedies. I use the findings from the critical essay to inform the methodology in the practice of my creative work, notably the recurrence of image and motif. The first sequence, “Fragmented”, tracks my paternal grandmother’s cognitive decline following an undiagnosed head injury sustained after being struck by a car. The second, third and fourth sequences, titled “Intensive Care”, “Valuables” and “Reclamation”, trace the aftermath of my family’s involvement in a fatal car accident which was precipitated by my grandmother’s death. “Intensive Care” is set contemporaneously to the crash, containing aspects of a child’s perspective, whilst in “Valuables” and “Reclamation” the speaker attempts in the present to elucidate the impact of the crash from some measure of critical distance. The epilogue contextualises the subject matter with more recent material. Writing the manuscript has challenged me to shape emotional response to deeply personal experience into an artwork, to seek the universal in the specific.
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    Risk of low energy availability and level of nutrition knowledge in recreational trail runners in Aotearoa/New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2024) Buch, Tina
    Introduction: Trail running as an endurance sport is growing in popularity. It is characterised by long event durations and extreme environments that are likely to result in high exercise energy expenditure. Energy availability is defined as the amount of energy available to support normal physiological functions after subtracting the energy cost of exercise from energy intake. Insufficient energy intake, increased exercise, or a combination of both can result in a state of low energy availability (LEA). Research has demonstrated a high prevalence of risk of LEA (~19%-85%) among both elite and recreational athletes, across both sexes and in endurance sports such as running. One possible contributor to LEA risk is poor nutrition knowledge. However, little is known about the risk of LEA and nutrition knowledge in trail runners. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LEA risk in recreational trail runners and investigate associations with nutrition knowledge. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study of adult trail runners in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The study required the completion of an amalgamated survey consisting of the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), the Low Energy Availability in Males Questionnaire (LEAM-Q), and the Platform for Evaluating Athlete Knowledge in Sports Nutrition Questionnaire (PEAKS-NQ). Demographics and trail-running experience questions were integrated into the survey. LEAF-Q scores ≥8 were classified as LEA risk, and for LEAM Q, a higher score indicated lower sex drive. Data were analysed in SPSS version 29 (IBM Corporation). Comparisons between groups (e.g. ‘low LEA risk’ vs. ‘LEA risk’) were performed using a chi-square test for categorical variables, and an independent samples t-test for continuous variables. Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The final survey sample was 217 (140 females, 42.0 ± 10.7 years; 77 males, 47.9 ± 12.1 years) for the LEAF-Q, LEAM-Q, and trail running questions; and 152 for the PEAKS-NQ. Participants ranged from beginners to very experienced trail runners who regularly participated in short 5-9km events through to ultramarathons. Thirty-one percent of females met the classification for LEA risk. Twenty-three percent of males were identified as having low sex drive, a marker of LEA risk. The LEAF-Q/sex drive score was higher in those with LEA risk (10.7 ± 2.3 / 4.5 ± 2.0) compared to those with low LEA risk (3.9 ± 2.3 / 1.5 ± 1.1, p < .001). Education, body mass index, weekly training hours and level of trail running experience did not differ between trail runners with LEA risk or low LEA risk. However, females with LEA risk were younger (38.0 ± 12.6 vs. 43.6 ± 9.4, P < .05), and more likely to report a weight change in the last six months (75.9% vs. 40.3%, P < 0.5). Males with LEA risk more readily reported a chronic illness (23.5% vs. 6.8%, P < 0.5) or food allergy/intolerance (27.7% vs. 8.6%, P < 0.5). For the general nutrition knowledge questions, 78.6 ± 10.1% for females and 75.8 ± 10.7% for males were answered correctly. However, sports nutrition scores were lower (females, 66.3 ± 13.4%; males, 63.2 ± 15.5%) with the lowest mean scores observed for ‘fuel for during events’ (8.8% correct). There was no difference in nutrition knowledge between individuals classified as low LEA risk vs LEA risk. Conclusion: The findings suggest that recreational trail runners are a group of active individuals who are at risk of LEA and that they might benefit from more sports-specific nutrition education.