HR performance within Saudi Arabian organisations : is the relationship between 'job security and ill-treatment' and job satisfaction moderated by organisational support : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
HR performance, particularly employees’ performance, has been well researched in Western countries. However, many Asian countries, including the region of the Arabic Gulf, are still under-researched in relation to this subject. This present study quantitatively investigated employees’ performance in one of the Gulf countries, Saudi Arabia. In addition, it took into consideration the religion (Islam) as well as the cultural characteristics that may affect performance in the workplace. Particularly, the type of society (collectivistic), losing face issue and power distance are the cultural characteristics discussed in this study. Furthermore, the study used four variables, which are considered important in relation to employees’ performance in the Saudi context: job security, ill-treatment (independent variables), perceived organisational support (POS) as a moderating variable and job satisfaction (dependent/outcome variable). The research question for this study is “Is the relationship between job security and ill-treatment, and job satisfaction, moderated by organisational support?”
Previous research indicates that relationships between these variables vary in terms of how much they impact employees’ job satisfaction and, therefore, their performance. Some studies suggest that job security increases employees’ job satisfaction which can result in better performance. Others claim that ill-treatment can be a source of job dissatisfaction and lower the quality of job performance as ill-treatment impacts employees physically and psychologically. In addition, POS was found to have positive effects on job satisfaction as a higher level of support from organisations can lead to higher job satisfaction and performance.
This cross-sectional, quantitative study used a questionnaire as the data collection method. Measurement scales used in the study were previously used in other studies, which strengthens the internal validity of this study. The 424 participants who completed the survey were Saudi employees who were required to have worked for at least six months for the same employer as full-time employees in Saudi Arabia. Results from this study suggest that, on an individual level, all three variables (job security, ill-treatment, POS) predicted job satisfaction in Saudi organisations. However, the regression analysis showed that job security had the biggest effect on job satisfaction followed by ill-treatment. Also, the moderation analysis revealed that the relationship between job security and job satisfaction was partially moderated by POS. However, POS did not appear to moderate the relationship between ill-treatment and job satisfaction.