Educational values, intrinsic or extrinsic : a study of parent pupil preferences : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University
A perennial problem faced by teachers, administrators and educational researchers is that of improving the performance levels of high school pupils. Efforts to understand some of the factors which contribute to scholastic achievement have established correlations between performance levels and a variety of physical emotional, psychological and cultural conditions. As well, over the last fifteen years a great deal of work has been concentrated on cultural influences upon school achievement and recently the concept of cultural difference has been found useful in predicting to differential levels of achievement. Cultural difference has been applied to differences in life styles within as well as between ethnic groups. Cultural anthropologists have drawn attention to the existence of subcultures which cut across ethnic lines and may have economic or regional origins. It is possible, for example, to speak of 'urban' vs.'rural' culture and similarly to speak of the 'culture of poverty'. The cultural differences observed are variations of the collectively shared values which characterize the national culture. The national culture into which one is socialized from birth provides its members with beliefs about acceptable goals. The belief system inherent in a national culture is reflected in the music, drama, literature, religion, law, politics, commerce, in short, every aspect of social behaviour. In a modern society the belief system is more universally available principally because of the pervasive influence of the mass media.