This thesis is about biculturalism in Aotearoa/New Zealand and its objectives through the eyes of iwi Māori and the State. Several facets of biculturalism are explored. Firstly the meaning of biculturalism is obscure. The term has lacked clear definition. There has been confusion over its intentions and differing expectations of its goals. Biculturalism does not have a single meaning nor is it a static state. It refers at one moment to institutional arrangements and at another to processes between groups and institutions. The second part of the thesis illustrates how the State and iwi Māori have to a large degree been talking past each other. The different understandings of biculturalism are reflected in the conflicting views of the Treaty of Waitangi, views not dissimilar to the differences between the English and Māori texts of the Treaty. The State has made some attempts to acknowledge Māori interests within its institutions, and these attempts are described. Tentative explanations of power sharing have been sufficient only to frustrate iwi Māori by their failure to address a basis for the principle of self determination. A resurgence of autonomous Māori organisations at both the tribal and intertribal levels is discussed within the framework of parallel and separate Māori development. A focus on restructuring within the State institutions leads to one version of biculturalism. A focus on interaction between Māori and State institutions leads to another aspect, perhaps more relevant to the twenty first century, emphasising the development of processes for negotiation between partners within the overall context of a single nation.