Options for solid waste management for Metro Manila, Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University
The Government of the Philippines has considered the solid waste crisis as an urgent national concern. Since devolution Local Government Units, especially in Metro Manila, have had difficulties in coping with the collection of large volume of solid waste generated in the metropolis. The existing landfills and dumpsites are also rapidly reaching their maximum capacities. This study examines and evaluates the existing institutional arrangements in Metro Manila and other countries in the ASEAN for the purpose of generating recommendations for the improvement of solid waste management service delivery in Metro Manila. A framework for evaluation of the institutional arrangements was developed which addresses the following questions: How is solid waste management service treated: is it public or private good/service? What are the roles of the different participants in the solid waste management service delivery chain? What are the operating arrangements in the delivery of solid waste management services? How do the institutional arrangements measure up to the criteria of efficiency, effectiveness, and equity? This framework was used to assess, by survey, arrangements in case studies in the major metropolitan areas of five ASEAN countries (Singapore, Bangkok, Jakarta, Kuala Lumpur and Metro Manila). The results of these case studies were used to generate the institutional options for solid waste management for Metro Manila. The research concluded that the appropriate arrangement for Metro Manila is the joint public-private provision of solid waste management services using contracting, franchising, licensing and community arrangements. Contracting and community arrangements have the most advantages in terms of attaining the objectives of efficiency, effectiveness and equity. Franchising and licensing have limited applications because ot equity considerations. This study also generated suggestions for institutional reform for effective solid waste management in Metro Manila: the "do-nothing" or status quo option; individual LGUs to be given collection, recycling, transfer and disposal responsibilities and fiscal autonomy in revenue generation; creation of commissions among LGUs and; creation of a single-purpose Metro Solid Waste Authority. Among the options, the creation of one or more commissions among LGUs appears to be the most feasible option at this point in time as it achieves economies of scale and allows possibilities for building managerial and operational competence among LGUs without loss of local autonomy. In all arrangements, the role of the public sector is critical in the development, negotiation, management, monitoring and enforcement of public-private agreements, and for equity purposes. Whatever arrangement eventuates, government agencies need to implement training and capacity building in SWM.