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The role of earthworms in nitrogen release from herbage residues : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University
Decomposition and nutrient release from pasture litter were examined in two biotic systems; either with or without large organisms ("macrobes"). Earthworms were the test macrobe and nitrogen (N) the test nutrient. This experiment addressed the hypothesis that consumption of herbage residues by macrobes, as opposed to microbes, should result in more of the contained N becoming available for uptake by plants or for loss processes, because macrobes oxidise a greater proportion of the contained carbon (C) by energetics. Earthworms influenced both soil metabolism and mineral N availability, irrespective of litter type (ryegrass or clover) and temperature (15 or 22.5 C). Carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption increased by 26% and 39%, respectively, in the presence of earthworms. After an 11-week incubation about 50% more mineral N was recorded in the soils containing earthworms. Moreover, less microbial biomass was recorded in the presence of worms. This influence of macrobes carried over into a subsequent, exhaustive cropping experiment, using ryegrass as the test plant. Where soils had been previously influenced by earthworms, there was a significant increase in plant growth and N uptake. Carbon dioxide evolved during incubation was highly correlated with soil mineral N (r= 0.84** ) present at the conclusion of incubation, and also with subsequent plant dry matter yield (r= 0.75** ) and plant N yield (r=0.85** ). The link between elaborated C and contained N has long been recognised as providing stability to organic residues in soils. In the design of this experiment, other influences of macrobes (e.g. mixing or structural influences) were largely obviated, so one can conclude that nitrogen availability was increased primarily through carbon respiration by the macrobial population. These results offer a fresh perspective on the balance between mineralisation and immobilisation in the soil-plant complex and, hence, on the dynamics of nutrients contained in organic matter. Better understanding of these relationships may allow improved management of the dynamics of soil organic matter in temperate grassland ecosystems.