Indonesian EFL teachers' perceptions of the influence and role of professional development and teacher study groups on teachers' self-efficacy : a mixed methods study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand
A growing body of research suggests that effective professional development (PD) can
help teachers increase their knowledge, skills and understanding about teaching.
Research evidence also indicates that good quality PD enhances teacher self-efficacy.
However, there have been few studies that have investigated the relationship between
teachers‟ participation in PD and changes in perceived levels of their self-efficacy. This
study aims to investigate the characteristics of good quality PD from the perspective of
junior secondary English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Indonesia. It also
aims to find out the relationship between teachers‟ participation in PD and teacher study
groups (TSGs) and changes in perceived levels of their self-efficacy.
A mixed methods research with a convergent parallel design involving four phases was
used in this study. In the first and fourth phases, the initial and follow-up questionnaires
were completed by 104 teachers in three districts. The questionnaires consisted of
closed questions and open-ended questions. In the second phase, three observations
were carried out in each of the three TSGs in the three districts. This focused on how
teachers conducted TSG meetings. In the third phase, semi-structured interviews were
conducted with 18 EFL teachers from three districts.
The findings from this study revealed that the participants‟ perceptions of good quality
PD seemed to be influenced by the Indonesian cultural context, educational system and
policies, and teacher resources. The EFL teachers perceived good quality PD facilitates:
increased teachers‟ knowledge and teaching skills, encourages collaboration, and is
based on teachers‟ classroom practical needs. The study also revealed that there is a
relationship between teachers‟ participation in PD, and TSGs, and changes in perceived
levels of their self-efficacy. Of the three aspects of instructional strategy, classroom
management, and student engagement, the EFL teachers made the greatest change of
their self-efficacy in instructional strategy. However, the participants also saw the
importance of having a good understanding of classroom management and student
engagement, in addition to instructional strategy.
The study suggests that good quality PD for junior secondary EFL teachers in Indonesia needs to give teachers time to talk and work collaboratively, and the content should be based on teachers‟ classroom practical needs. The study also suggests the need to involve teachers in the process of planning, designing, and implementing PD in order to maximize its benefits. Therefore PD, such as TSGs in Indonesia, should be expanded and encouraged by the Indonesian government.