A nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of brine inclusions in Antarctic and artificial sea ice : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Physics at Massey University
The aim of this thesis is to use Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to examine the brine pockets in sea ice. Both the movement of the brine pockets within the ice, and the movement of the brine within the brine pockets is examined. The experiments are carried out using Earth's field NMR on sea ice in situ in Antarctica, and high field NMR equipment on artificially grown sea ice in New Zealand. The field work involved probe design, construction, and use. Investigations were carried out on brine content, and brine diffusion rates. The laboratory work involved growing realistic artificial sea ice, designing and constructing a temperature control system for the high field NMR machine, and carrying out experiments on the artificial sea ice samples. The brine pockets' morphology and distribution was examined. The brine and brine pocket movements over time, with a controlled temperature gradient, were also investigated. The results from the field work clearly showed multiple diffusion rates in sea ice, both faster and slower than that of water. The lab work showed that realistic sea ice had been grown, and that there was a migration of brine pockets in the direction of the temperature gradient.