An integrated national strategy for resource and environmental management in post-apartheid Namibia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University
This thesis presents a structure for integrated strategic planning across levels of government in Namibia. The study advocates necessary preconditions for the preparation of An Integrated National Strategy for Resource and Environmental Management in Post-Apartheid Namibia. Because the diagnostic nature of an integrated national strategy requires a condensed assessment of the state of the economy, people, institutions and natural resources, this study commences with a critical examination of the impact of German genocide and South African apartheid policies on the people, and natural and physical resources of Namibia, and illustrates how Namibia has begun to develop out the problems associated with colonial influence. Current underdevelopment and poverty in Namibia is mainly due to unsustainable extraction of resources which has generally benefited South Africa and its provincial satellites. In order to understand Namibia's economic situation, its profile is analysed in comparative study with other SADC member states. Namibia needs to encourage sustained economic growth in order to achieve human development objectives. It is especially important to integrate environmental management at all levels of government to achieve unity of the people and sustainable exploitation of natural and physical resources. Namibia's current state of natural and physical resources is analysed by taking into consideration the immediate actions of the current Government which succeeded colonial oppression. Adverse effects of past exploitation are compiled, and recommendations of various theorists are offered as supportive evidence of the requirements for an integrated national strategy for resource management. The absence of planning at the local level of government is the major cause of inconsistency in both policy-making and plan preparation, and is also identified as major threat to the achievement of sustainable economic development in Namibia. Changes regarding the strengthening of institutional capabilities, application of economic instruments in management of natural resources, methods of plan preparation, strategic policies, including integrated monitoring procedures are proposed. Suggestions are made about means by which these recommendations could be implemented to achieve sustainable development of natural and physical resources in Namibia. The conclusion of this study suggests also that development planning of natural and physical resources need to be nationally diversified by devolving planning authority to sub-national and sub-regional levels of government. The idea is to relieve Namibia's National Planning Commission from the burden of planning at the local level of government and to efficiently spread administrative responsibility across a multinuclear umbrella of private and public sectors involved in strategic planning.