Social Policy and Social Work

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    Are we failing them? : an analysis of the New Zealand criminal youth justice system : how can we further prevent youth offending and youth recidivism? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2015) Johnson, Charlotte
    Youth crime is a prominent social issue in New Zealand that causes emotional and physical harm and loss to the numerous victims. This research provides an analysis of the current youth criminal justice system in New Zealand, beginning with a timeline of the history and evolvement of the youth justice system to illustrate how New Zealand has arrived at the present system. The drivers of youth crime and youth involvement in criminal offending were found to be initially born from a lack of engagement with education; neurological disorders; learning difficulties and mental illness; as well as the impact of young people’s childhood, which can include exposure to family violence; drug and alcohol abuse. Comparative policy evaluation was applied with comparative methodology and comparative cross national research to undertake an analysis of the youth justice system in New Zealand. International comparisons were used to discover plausible and practical improvements to the current youth justice system in New Zealand. The OECD countries used in the comparative analysis included Canada, Scotland, England & Wales, United States and Austria, who between them have significantly diverse and contrasting youth justice models ranging from welfare, care and protection centred models, to community-based rehabilitation models; preventative education and support to punitive models in their response to youth crime. ii It was found that several aspects of New Zealand’s current youth justice system function well when compared internationally. However, the comparative analysis also highlighted that New Zealand’s youth justice system presents a problematic gap in both the sheer lack of preventative methods in response to youth offending as well as community support during the rehabilitation stage. A number of policy recommendations are included within this report in response to the present shortcomings of the existing youth justice system in New Zealand. These policy recommendations provide practical solutions; adopting a preventative policy focus with plausible improvement suggestions to the existing youth justice system. The objectives are to ameliorate the youth justice system to better support youth offending and youth recidivism.
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    From family group conferencing to whānau ora : Māori social workers talk about their experiences : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work in Social Work at Massey University, Manawatu, Aotearoa New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2013) Moyle, Paora
    This thesis explored the challenges faced by seven very experienced Māori social workers within the care and protection system. The views of these practitioners on what has improved for Māori whānau around recent changes to FGC and newer initiatives such as Whānau Ora were also examined. In Aotearoa New Zealand the family group conference (FGC) is the legal mechanism through which matters related to the care and protection of children are dealt with; Māori are half of the total families who have participated in FGCs. A critical factor inhibiting our understanding of this disproportionate participation is the culture of silence that exists around the effectiveness of the FGC and related care and protection issues for Māori. This research uses a Māori centred research approach to explore the challenges participants faced in care and protection and a thematic analysis of their accounts was undertaken. From this analysis it was found that: (a) the participants creatively walked between two world views in order to best meet the needs of their own people; (b) that these Māori practitioners felt over-worked and under-valued; and (c) the participants viewed the practices within FGCs as biased, demonstrating a lack of bicultural ability and contributing to significant barriers that whānau experience. They also noted that these issues were not being talked about in the sector. The implications of this for Māori relate to them being generalised into the greater mainstream mix of academic research, policy and ministerial reports, rendering them invisible. Only the individual factors of social need are being focused on for Māori because they are measurable, whilst the drivers such as colonisation, structural discrimination and cultural genocide that perpetuate the marginalisation of Māori are ignored. This is proactive monoculturalism and this study talks about it.
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    Understanding service development in statutory mental health organisations in Aotearoa New Zealand : an organisational case study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Social Work at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2013) Stanley-Clarke, Nicola
    This research aimed to understand service development in statutory mental health organisations in Aotearoa New Zealand. Of major focus was the analysis of the elements that influenced service development as well as developing an understanding of decision-making in the service development process. The study involved an organisational case study of one statutory mental health provider, Living Well and included the collection and analysis of both primary and secondary data. The primary data included qualitative interviews, document analysis and the observation of meetings. Secondary data included literature, research, policy and external reviews of the organisation. Archetype theory provided the theoretical framework for analysing the processes of service development within Living Well. This enabled a holistic assessment of service development as it related to the structures and systems of the organisation alongside its central purpose (raison d’être) and the values, beliefs and ideologies that comprised its interpretive scheme. The use of an organisational case study contributed to the body of knowledge and theory building on service development and archetype transformation within statutory mental health providers in Aotearoa/New Zealand. The findings of this research supported the development of an approach for understanding service development within statutory mental health organisations and a guide for service development. The approach emphasises that Living Well’s interpretive scheme was central to the service development process and was in an ongoing state of flux as the organisation attempted to balance conflicting priorities and demands with the delivery of responsive mental health services (the organisation’s raison d’être). The complexity of the service development process within Living Well was exemplified in ongoing tension between clinical values and management priorities. The research findings reveal that service development within statutory mental health organisations like Living Well, requires alignment between the different factors that influence the service development process. Further, the likelihood of successful implementation is dependent on the priority allocated to service development related to its necessity; the organisation’s current operational and clinical demands; as well as the relationships and roles of those involved in the service development process. The guide for service development provides recognition of these core features of Living Well’s interpretive scheme, utilising informal processes to engender support, to minimise opposition and to ensure client care is the primary focus.
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    How do social work students perceive their fieldwork supervision experiences? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2013) Moorhouse, Leisa Maree
    Ma te whakaatu, ka mohio Ma te mohio, ka marama Ma te marama, ka matau Ma te matau, ka ora Through discussion comes understanding Through understanding comes light Through light comes wisdom Through wisdom comes wellbeing Fieldwork practice is a vital component of social work education. Positive fieldwork supervision, based on principles of adult learning is vital to the integration of theory and practice during the fieldwork experience. A student’s experiences of fieldwork supervision can shape the value they place on future supervision, thus it is essential that fieldwork supervision is experienced positively. This research focuses on the understandings seven social work students formed about their fieldwork supervision experiences. This study explores what these experiences might mean for those involved in fieldwork supervision in Aotearoa New Zealand. This study is qualitative, utilising a phenomenological approach. Data was gathered from semi-structured interviews, and an inductive approach was used for thematic explication. Eight key findings were identified which revealed three themes which signalled the importance of; knowledge, skill, and relationship. The findings endorse current literature about the place of fieldwork supervision in student learning, and the value of knowledge, skill and relationship in supervision. They also underscore the need for further research into cultural supervision, including the need for a review of how cultural supervision is understood and resourced in fieldwork education in the Aotearoa New Zealand context. The study also reinforces the need for contributions to the literature on fieldwork supervision, particularly exploring the student perspective. On the basis of this research six main implications are identified. This research identifies six key implications from this study, the first concerns the transferability of the findings, four concern the preparation of key stakeholders in fieldwork (namely students, fieldwork educators, external supervisors and fieldwork coordinators), and the fifth concerns the cultural supervision and Kaupapa Maori supervision needs of all social work students in Aotearoa New Zealand. Thus, like the opening whakatauki above suggests, it is hoped that discussion on which this study is founded provides light, understanding, and ultimately wellbeing for all those involved in and impacted by fieldwork supervision.
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    Bewhoherenow : philosophy of existing sense : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in Social Policy and Social Work at Massey University
    (Massey University, 1995) Goodwillie, Craig
    body is[born and sustained through] sacrifice. i see mind seek immortalityandomnipotence through sacrifice. i see mind over body - mind rooting divide in subtraction of orgasmic from being[beingintheworld] to body to part[orgasm] to non i see mind rage [Laing] - where there was once here - rapeing here. seeyouhere [appealing]. argument [syllogism]. i, bodimentofbeing [eg Laing] iam bewhoherenow lookdown. iambody in Pain. The mutual repulsion of profane and sacred [Gould on sacred Hindu law]. profanity [of body] is polluted in embodying [pollution in her] and the sacrifice [decay and death - of zeroing body] - purifies sacred. Based on Gould's summary of the underlying assumptions of Hindu sacred law in chapter four "Priests and Conrapriests" (1967) In Gould, Harold A. (1987) The Hindu Caste System: The Sacralization of a Social Order. Chanakya: Delhi. p. 111. Reprinted from Contributions to Indian Sociology. New Series, No. 1, pp 28-57. pain embodimentofbeing [eg Kierkegaard guilts] therefore pain splacematterenergytime [Zeno on splacematterenergytime] splacematterenergytime therefore physics [physics - enlightenment testing ground for cause and effect. Einstein is the light speed observer - observing as fast as impossible with all else in train[slaved]. Newton masters gravity. Chaos is unpredictable slave. Second law of thermodynamics is mastery of slavery. Determinism - master[cause] and slave[effect] - exposed.] physics therefore chemistry [cell bodies], biology [organic bodies], psychology [human body], sociology [human bodies] physics therefore economy [shop - supply of body mastered and demand of body slaved], therefore law [keep shop] and policy [shop front] physics therefore mathematics [dominating human language. the right angle [triangle, hypotenuse, point of view] from Pythagorus and the zeroing of infinity from Indian grammar as void shape [the view of] mind.] physics of mathematics therefore philosophy of mathematics [the form of Plato called first cause by Aristotle and named one by Parmenides and Ptolemy mythologise shape as truth.] mathematics therefore logic [proofing the dominance of mathematics as dominant perspective. Leibniz puts one[everything] and zero[nothing] in Aristotle's syllogism and Boole starts crunching medium of english.] language therefore body [language is metaphor - the naming of] therefore is am i [who] was seen before [then] and therefore pain is becoming in between being inbetweenbeing - etheranderos - heavenandearth and [therefore] creation becomes kill[determined] [sacrifice]. sense [evidence]. inaffinity i body being in words [sound] in paper [light] in hand [body] and water [blood] and inaffinity [analogy] i syllogism. i syllogism to immortality [aim of mind] and syllogism immortality to death [target]. i deal summarily with logic [Aristotle, Leibniz, Boole, Russell and others] language [Panini, Itkonen, Laing, Burke and others] law [Williams, Waddams and others] mathematics [Sarton, Kline, Weyl and others] physics [Zeno, Pythagorus, Newton, Einstein] chemistry [Van Helmont, Brock, Hoagland] biology [Malthus, Darwin, Carson] sociology [Milgram] psychology [Skinner] economy [Smith, Marx, Stigler, Mumford] policy [Machiavelli, Orwell] and mythology [Upanishads, Plato, da Vinci, Galileo, Kant]. i quote directly or quote quote from recognised source. i use subheadings. i sound wordsounds [eg bodyandsoul] i emotion for sound [errors abound]. conclusion [assumptions]. beingintheworld is[the way of the world]. body is mind is being. mind is grasping[knots] itself. mind is lost[without body]. presumption [prediction]. beingwhole [therefore] letgoofyourself [advice given] and shebehere. [500 words]
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    Ngamotu me Kihitu nga whenua, Ngamotu me Kihitu nga turangawaewae : "Aue Te Ariki aue", kei whea ra nga tangata o te hau kainga nei? : a personal journey : where have all the people gone? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of requirement[s] for the degree of Masters of Philosophy, a major in Social Work, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2012) Webber-Dreadon, Emma Te Paea
    Enclosed to the north and west by hills, edged by the Pacific Ocean and the Wairoa Hopupu-Hongenge Matangirau River, it seemed to me as a six year old that Ngamotu, Kihitu and Wairoa were the only places that existed in the world. It was then, and will always be, the ‘centre of my Universe’. NGAMOTU TE WHENUA, NGAMOTU TE TURANGAWAEWAE "AUE TE ARIKI AUE", KEI WHEA RA NGA TANGATA O TE HAU KAINGA NEI? The purpose of this research was to explore why the whenua of Ngamotu, and additionally Kihitu, are almost deserted of her people, and why there is so little use of her agriculturally or horticulturally. The inclusion of Kihitu within this thesis is because it is a 15 acres block of land located in the centre of Ngamotu. Whatever happens to either ‘block’ must surely impact on the other in some way. The use of tikanga and kaupapa Maori as the ‘pou’ of this research is what determines the mauri (well being) of nga whenua o Ngamotu and Kihitu, and their people. These are used because they are the most appropriate techniques and tools to use to explore and ascertain the mauri (well being) of Ngamotu and Kihitu, and her people. The study is an oral and recorded history, as told by seven purposively chosen mokopuna, who willingly shared their experiences and their knowledge of Ngamotu and Kihitu. In their own words, they shared their stories about Ngamotu and Kihitu, their history, their current status, and the influences that they have had on them, and what if any, are their moemoea (dreams) for Ngamotu and Kihitu. By naming Ngamotu and Kihitu as our turangawaewae acknowledges and provides a ‘chiefly’ place for us all to stand, which contributes to the importance and the ‘mauri ora’ (wellbeing) of Ngamotu and Kihitu as a whenua, which then enables us as mana-whenua (people of the land) to determine, define and strengthen our world views about and around Ngamotu and Kihitu, which in turn reflects the concept of being Maori and being a mokopuna of Ngamotu and Kihitu.
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    The restructuring of the Department of Social Welfare and implications for social work practice, 1986-1988 : a dissertation presented in partial fulfillment for the requirements of a Doctorate in Philosophy at Massey University
    (Massey University, 1990) Barretta-Herman, Angeline
    This exploratory study analysed changes in the practice of social work in the Department of Social Welfare which occurred as a consequence of the Department's restructuring in 1986. This restructuring introduced major changes in management, service delivery, and the provision of culturally appropriate social services. It was proposed that changes in the practice of social work were related to wider economic, political and social debates regarding the viability and effectiveness of New Zealand's social services. These debates were interpreted as indicating a significant shift from policies derived from a welfare state model of provision to a welfare society model of social service delivery. A multi-leveled analytical framework was used to examine issues of policy, organization and professional practice. Three qualitative techniques were used to generate the data reported in the dissertation: documents published during the period 1969 - 1988; a structured interview schedule completed with both managers and social workers; and, finally, participant observation in two District Offices of the Department. Findings from this exploratory study provided general support for the shift in policy from a state funded, centrally directed model of service provision, to a pluralistic model that altered the role of the state and was intended to increase the involvement of community - based voluntary services. Within this shift, it was shown that during the 1986 - 1988 period, the Department's role became increasingly concerned with funding, monitoring and evaluating services. Biculturalism and the needs of Maori were shown to be critical factors in these shifts. The practice of social work within the Department of Social Welfare also became more limited and more specialised and its professional identity was altered by the changed organizational emphasis and the requirements of the Department. Several avenues for further research were delineated. Prospects for the future practice of social work sketched in the context of ongoing change within the Department were identified.
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    Successful ageing : a critical analysis : a dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Sociology, Social Policy, and Social Work at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2006) Holmes, Jeanne
    The demographics and implications of the growth of the world's population of older people have been well publicised. Frequently, this is linked to concerns about growing demands for social services. In liberal western nations, this rise in the proportion of elderly people is occurring at a period in history when governments are attempting to contain state spending on health care and welfare. Within this context, the gerontological concept of 'successful ageing', which encourages productivity and self-reliance among older people, has emerged. The term 'successful ageing' was coined by R. J. Havighurst in 196l and developed by Rowe and Kahn into a gerontological concept in 1998. Rowe and Kahn's search to identify the factors "that conspire to put one octogenarian on cross-country skis and another in a wheelchair" led them to put forward the view that 'successfully aged' old people are those who remain healthy and socially engaged. The concept of successful aging is widely regarded as promoting well-being in old age. As a result, it has become highly influential in the fields of nursing, social work, and social care. However, the concept has also attracted criticism, mainly for praising the fortunate and privileged elders who have managed to prolong healthy middle age; whilst labelling unwell, disabled, and lonely old people as unsuccessful. In this thesis, my central criticism of the concept of successful ageing is that its definition of 'success' in old age is not based on the views and real life experiences of older people, but instead, on the expertise of scientists and researchers, many of whom have yet to experience the decline and losses normally associated with old age. Consequently, there is a significant difference between the concept of successful ageing and a proportion of elderly people regarding the requirements for the best possible old age. The purpose of this study is to discover the factors which a diverse group of old people regard as essential to optimal old age. It compares and contrasts their self-assessed components of well-being with the externally assessed components of 'successful aging'. The process involved in-depth research with thirty elderly people in New Zealand and the United States. The majority were women. Several ethnic groups were represented. Participants included First Nations people, first generation immigrants, and the descendants of European settlers. Although it was not intentional, my entire sample consisted of people who would have been defined as unsuccessfully aged by the 'successful ageing' paradigm. Yet these people showed resilience, resourcefulness, and often, great satisfaction with their lives. This research demonstrates that there is an incomplete fit between the factors, which older people say produce the best possible old age, and those promoted by the concept of successful ageing. It concludes that in order to promote optimum well-being among older people, it is necessary to take note of the experiences, views, and values of elders themselves.
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    From the New Zealand Crippled Children Society to CCS Disability Action : a social and political history of a disability organisation in Aotearoa New Zealand moving from charity to social action : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy: Social Policy, Massey University, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2012) Schorer, Mathilde Theresia Maria
    The New Zealand Crippled Children Society, founded in 1935, has emerged as CCS Disability Action in the first decade of the 21st century. This thesis covers the social history of the organisation from 1935 to 1945 and 1997 to 2008, placing it into the societal context of Aotearoa New Zealand by exploring previous histories, examining historical documents and collecting information in interviews with key players. Analysis of the documentary and interview data is guided by questions about the influence on CCSDA by: • The changing perception and language around impairment and disability in the last 75 years and the influence of the social model of disability • The bicultural perspective crucial to social history in Aotearoa New Zealand expanding to multicultural considerations • The emergence of the disability rights movement and the importance of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities • Key developments in social policy in Aotearoa New Zealand and the relationship of non profit organisations and the State with the crosspollination of innovative ideas and the varying balance of power Recommendations for CCSDA suggest continuing as a champion for the rights of disabled children and keeping the combination of quality service and social change agenda. A comprehensive history of CCS Disability Action is recommended as an acknowledgment of disabled people’s contribution to CCSDA and to society in Aotearoa New Zealand.
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    Fit to practice : exploring the work experiences of registered nurses who are disabled during the course of their careers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters of Philosophy in Social Policy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand
    (Massey University, 2011) Korzon, Juliana P.
    A potential for systemic discrimination against nurses with impairments has been identified within literature relating to the nursing profession. Workforce shortages combined with an ageing nursing population suggests that there will be an increase in the number of nurses with impairments and a need to recruit and retain these nurses. There is very little known about the experience of nurses who have acquired impairments during the course of their careers. The intention of this research is to explore the experience of nurses who have acquired impairments and the impact on their identity and their nursing practice. The study draws on a range of theoretical works including those from disability studies and employs a qualitative approach that is influenced by Somers’ (1994) narrative methodology. Inclusive to this methodology is an abductive strategy based on a constructivist view of social reality (Blaikie, 2000; 2007; 2010) which produces accounts of social life drawing on the concepts and meanings used by social actors and the activities in which they engage (Douglas, 1996). Seven nurses were interviewed and their narratives analysed to identify the social and cultural scripts which shape their experiences and the formation of identity within the nursing context. The research findings indicate the participant’s experience of negotiating a disabled identity takes place largely in isolation and is influenced by biomedical narratives of disability which provide the foundation of the continuity of a predominantly disabling nursing environment. The experience of impairment is viewed as problematic and as an individual responsibility whilst the practices of organisations which perpetuate disabling environments were largely unquestioned. Issues of disclosure and non-disclosure have created tension for most of the participants within workplace environments that operate on an assumption of non-disability. The participants contribute to the practice of the nursing profession in a variety of roles which they have sought out as a means of managing within the nursing context. This research challenges the perspective of an individual pathologised view of disability and promotes a perspective which embraces a rights based understanding. The research suggests that a willingness to promote equity of access and freedom from discrimination needs to be reflected in policy and standards of both the Nursing Council of New Zealand as nursing’s regulatory body and within employing organisations.