Fortified foods with Sangkap Pinoy Seal and the micronutrient intake among selected households in Punta, Sta. Ana, Manila, Philippines : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Human Health, Massey University
This study evaluated the food fortification program (Sangkap Pinoy Seal Program-SPS) in the Philippines in terms of determining the rate of awareness, attitude and considerations and the factors associated with purchase of fortified foods with SPS among women in a poor urban area in Manila. This study also determined the contribution of SPS foods to total iron and vitamin A intake of their preschool children. A survey was conducted through personal interviews among 134 mothers who were randomly selected from all villages of Punta, Sta. Ana, Manila. Descriptive data showed that around 60% of the participants were aware of SPS foods. In general, a positive perception on SPS foods was demonstrated by the women as reflected in their comments. Majority of these comments associated SPS foods as foods accepted/recommended by the Department of Health, foods with added nutrients and nutritious and safe food to eat. Around 89% of those who were aware exhibited a positive attitude towards fortified foods. Awareness of fortified foods and foods with SPS were significant predictors of purchase of SPS foods. However, even if income was the stronger determinant of purchase than awareness, awareness still had some effect. Around 3% and 6% of the variation in purchase of SPS foods could be attributed to the effects of attitude to fortified foods and total opinion to food and health, respectively. The results of this study also showed that preference of the family and taste were major considerations in purchasing SPS foods among more than half of the sample. These findings suggest that the participants purchased SPS foods not mainly because of added nutrients. Intakes of energy and vitamin A among the respondents' preschooler children were considered adequate. However, their iron intake was found to be less adequate. A remarkable finding of this research study was the significant contributions of SPS foods to iron and vitamin A intakes of the children in achieving the RDA. There was 53% increase on the number of children whose vitamin A intake was less than 50% of the RDA if SPS foods were taken out from the diet. SPS foods contributed around 27.6% to total vitamin A intake of the children. Without, the contribution of iron from SPS foods, there was 44% decrease on the number of children whose iron intake was greater than 75% of the RDA and 100% increase on the number of children whose iron intake was less than 50% of the RDA. Hence, iron and vitamin A from SPS foods did have an impact in the nutritional status of the children. The findings of the study may provide vital information to the food fortification program and pose a challenge to nutrition educators. The results are discussed in relation to the previous literature and recommendations are presented with particular emphasis on the implications for future research. In conclusion, SPS foods may have a good potential to improve the nutritional status of the children.