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Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
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    The Korean exorcist meets the New Zealand Justice system
    (Massey University, 2007-08) Kavan, Heather; Kavan, Heather
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    Polish adaptation of the driving and riding avoidance scale
    (Versita, 2013) Blachnio A; Przepiórka A; Sullman M; Taylor J
    Driving anxiety is a relatively undervalued topic of research, despite the fact that it can have a substantial detrimental impact on an individual’s life. The prevalence of driving anxiety in motor vehicle crash (MVC) survivors has been found to range from 18-77%. Although driving anxiety can develop without crash involvement, no information currently exists on the prevalence of driving anxiety in the general population. One barrier to gathering this information is that most of the instruments are designed to measure driving anxiety in MVC survivors. However, the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale (DRAS; Stewart & St. Peter, 2004) is one instrument that shows promise as a more general measure of driving anxiety, although previous research has noted the need for some minor adaptations (Taylor & Sullman, 2009). Therefore, the present study investigated the psychometric properties of an adapted version of the DRAS and the level of driving anxiety amongst a sample of 210 Polish participants. Internal consistency for the overall DRAS was .91 and ranged from .77 to .85 for the subscales. Factor analysis of the DRAS resulted in two clear factors, with the first containing driving avoidance items and the second consisting solely of riding avoidance items. Therefore it appears that the DRAS can be a useful measure of driving avoidance in samples drawn from the general population as well as MVC survivors.
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    Evil Pickles: DoS attacks based on object-Graph engineering
    (2017-05-13) Dietrich J; Jezek K; Rasheed S; Tahir A; Potanin A
    This artefact demonstrates the effects of the serialisation vulnerabilities described in the companion paper. It is composed of three components: scripts, including source code, for Java, Ruby and C# serialisation-vulnerabilities, two case studies that demonstrate attacks based on the vulnerabilities, and a contracts-based mitigation strategy for serialisation-based attacks on Java applications. The artefact allows users to witness how the serialisation-based vulnerabilities result in behavior that can be used in security attacks. It also supports the repeatability of the case study experiments and the benchmark for the mitigation measures proposed in the paper. Instructions for running the tasks are provided along with a description of the artefact setup.
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    Changes in the welfare of an injured working farm dog assessed using the Five Domains Model
    (2016-09-21) Littlewood KE; Mellor DJ
    © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.The present structured, systematic and comprehensive welfare evaluation of an injured working farm dog using the Five Domains Model is of interest in its own right. It is also an example for others wanting to apply the Model to welfare evaluations in different species and contexts. Six stages of a fictitious scenario involving the dog are considered: (1) its on-farm circumstances before one hind leg is injured; (2) its entanglement in barbed wire, cutting it free and transporting it to a veterinary clinic; (3) the initial veterinary examination and overnight stay; (4) amputation of the limb and immediate post-operative recovery; (5) its first four weeks after rehoming to a lifestyle block; and (6) its subsequent life as an amputee and pet. Not all features of the scenario represent average-to-good practice; indeed, some have been selected to indicate poor practice. It is shown how the Model can draw attention to areas of animal welfare concern and, importantly, to how welfare enhancement may be impeded or facilitated. Also illustrated is how the welfare implications of a sequence of events can be traced and evaluated, and, in relation to specific situations, how the degrees of welfare compromise and enhancement may be graded. In addition, the choice of a companion animal, contrasting its welfare status as a working dog and pet, and considering its treatment in a veterinary clinical setting, help to highlight various welfare impacts of some practices. By focussing attention on welfare problems, the Model can guide the implementation of remedies, including ways of promoting positive welfare states. Finally, wider applications of the Five Domains Model are noted: by enabling both negative and positive welfare-relevant experiences to be graded, the Model can be applied to quality of life assessments and end-of-life decisions and, with particular regard to negativeexperiences, the Model can also help to strengthen expert witness testimony during prosecutions for serious ill treatment of animals.
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    Monomorphic genotypes within a generalist lineage of Campylobacter jejuni show signs of global dispersion
    (Microbiology Society, 2016-10-01) Llarena AK; Zhang J; Vehkala M; Välimäki N; Hakkinen M; Hänninen M; Roasto M; Mäesaar M; Taboada E; Barker D; Garofolo G; Cammà C; Di Giannatale E; Corander J; Ross M
    The decreased costs of genome sequencing have increased the capability to apply whole-genome sequencing to epidemiological surveillance of zoonotic Campylobacter jejuni. However, knowledge of the genetic diversity of this bacteria is vital for inferring relatedness between epidemiologically linked isolates and a necessary prerequisite for correct application of this methodology. To address this issue in C. jejuni we investigated the spatial and temporal signals in the genomes of a major clonal complex and generalist lineage, ST-45 CC, by analysing the population structure and genealogy as well as applying genome-wide association analysis of 340 isolates from across Europe collected over a wide time range. The occurrence and strength of the geographical signal varied between sublineages and followed the clonal frame when present, while no evidence of a temporal signal was found. Certain sublineages of ST-45 formed discrete and genetically isolated clades containing isolates with extremely similar genomes regardless of time and location of sampling. Based on a separate data set, these monomorphic genotypes represent successful C. jejuni clones, possibly spread around the globe by rapid animal (migrating birds), food or human movement. In addition, we observed an incongruence between the genealogy of the strains and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), challenging the existing clonal complex definition and the use of whole-genome gene-by-gene hierarchical nomenclature schemes for C. jejuni.
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    Understanding soil phosphorus variability with depth for the improvement of current soil sampling methods
    (2017-02-07) Kaul TM; Grafton MCE; Hedley MJ; Yule IJ
    Noise in soil test results can be reduced by measuring phosphorus below the top 3cm of soil from ground level. This is significant for improving current soil nutrient testing methods by allowing better geospatial predictions for whole paddock soil nutrient variability mapping for use in precision fertilizer application. In this study 200 cores were collected from predetermined grids at two trial sites at „Patitapu‟ hill country farm in the Wairarapa. The sites were selected according to accessibility and slope- Trial 1 was a 200m x 100m grid located in a gently undulating paddock. Trial 2 was a 220m x 80m grid located on a moderate to steeply sloped paddock. Each grid had cores taken at intervals of 5m, 10m and 20m. Core sites were mapped out on a Landsat 8 image (NASA) of the Trial sites using ArcGIS 10.2 (ESRI, Redlands Ca.) prior to going into the field; these were then marked out using a LEICA (real time kinematic GPS), pigtails and spray-paint on the ground. Cores were taken using a 30mm diameter soil core sampler. Trial 1 cores were cut into four sections according to depth: A – 0-30mm, B – 30mm-75mm, C- 75mm-150mm, and D- >150mm. Trial 2 cores were cut into three sections: A – 0-30mm, B – 30mm-75mm, C- 75mm-150mm. Olsen P lab results were collected for 120 of the 400 soil cores. These results were analyzed to compare the spatial variability of each depth. The results indicate that there is a significant decrease in variability from section A to section B for both trials. Section B and C for trial 1 have similar variability, whereas there is another significant drop in variability from section B to C in trial 2. Measuring samples below the top 3cm appears to effectively reduce noise, however measuring below 7.5cm for a steeply sloped paddock such as trial 2 may reduce variability too much as to no longer be representative of plant available P, and therefore misrepresenting the overall variability of soil P across a paddock or farm.
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    Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013) Hayman DTS; McDonald KD; Kosoy MY
    Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world.
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    Erratum: Detangling flat bands into Fano lattices
    (EPL ASSOCIATION, EUROPEAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY, 2014-01-01) Flach S; Leykam D; Bodyfelt JD; Matthies P; Desyatnikov AS
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    Attitudinal differences towards mental health services between younger and older New Zealand adults
    (New Zealand Psychological Society Inc., 2008) James SA; Buttle H
    This study aimed to explore attitudinal differences between young and older New Zealand adults to seeking professional mental health services, including effects of previous help, and the types of service preferred. A questionnaire which included the Inventory of Attitudes towards Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS), together with questions regarding previous help, and preferred services for mental health needs, was administered to 125 participants aged 27-91 residing in the north Auckland area. Older adults were higher in help-seeking propensity (HSP) but less psychologically open (PO) than their younger counterparts. In older adults only, previous help contributed positively towards PO, while increased satisfaction with previous help correlated with increased indifference to stigma (IS). Older adults had a preference for physicians for mental health issues, followed by friends, God, clergy and psychiatrists. Attitudes towards help-seeking were generally favourable in older adults, but their lower PO and preference for service provider may inhibit their use of professional psychological services. General practitioners and clergy need to be provided with resources which enable them to refer older adults appropriately.
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    A cross country analysis of social justice in assessment
    (2017-11-27) Poskitt JM; Adie L; Hayward L
    Social justice is an international concern and evident in education and assessment policies, but is less evident in the enactment of reporting policy and practices. We explore these ruptures in assessment policy through analysis of the assessment documents of three countries, Australia, New Zealand and Scotland. Specifically, we address the social and cultural assumptions that limit opportunities for student and parent voice in reporting processes. Robinson and Taylor’s (2007) four core values of student voice form the conceptual framework. In order to better align assessment, reporting and social justice practices, we draw on notions of spirit and letter of assessment, feedback to create dialogic spaces, and the relationship between formative and summative assessment. Lundy’s (2007) conceptualisation of voice is used to propose ways forward to create a more socially just reporting system. To transform reporting practices, we recommend reconceptualising reporting as communicating, and assessment as progressing learning.