Integrating the green consumption dimension : consumer styles inventory scale development and validation : thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, School of Communication Marketing and Journalism, Massey University Business School, Albany, New Zealand

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Organisations are increasingly seeking to understand green consumer decision-making and cater for these consumers accordingly. Despite significant practitioner interest, scholarly inquiry into the Green Consumption Styles (i.e., GCS) concept has transpired only relatively recently, resulting in a limited understanding of the concept, and its measurement to-date. Employing an integrative multimethod approach, this thesis addresses this literature gap by developing a measurement instrument for the ‘green consumption scale’ (i.e., GCS) in the context of Tanzania and New Zealand. This thesis is presented in three parts. Part I reports on a literature review and preliminary qualitative research (see Chapters 1-2) conducted to explore/define GCS, and develop an initial GCS item pool. GCS is looked at as “the ways consumers steer their green buying-decision process regarding information searching, evaluation, selection, and purchases.” Part II (Chapter 3-4) provides a theoretical rationale for adopting scale development research in this thesis as well as an overview of the proposed mixed methods research methodology (Chapter 3). It further provides specifications for data-analytical techniques and procedures adopted in this research. Key qualitative research findings were documented in section 3.6, which included the development of the proposed GCS definition, antecedents, and consequences. Chapter 4 dealt with the quantitative analysis of the thesis. A series of EFA and CFA procedures were consecutively undertaken to further assess the GCS scale in study 1 and 2. To explore the scale’s dimensionality, Study 1 an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results revealed and substantiated a nine-factor, 31-item GCS structure (i.e., green consumption, brand conscious, Recreational, Perfectionistic, Impulsiveness, confused by over-choice, Habitual/brand-loyal, Novelty-fashion-conscious, and Price Conscious) (Table 4.12) using a sample of n=448. Finally, the results suggest a combined (original CSI scale by Sproles and Kendall (1986) plus green scale 9-factor solution with 31-items (see Chapter 4). Using the reduced, 31- item scale and a new sample of n=225 Tanzania and New Zealand-based consumers, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is undertaken in study 2 to confirm the nine-factor, 31-item GCS scale (section 4.3). This analysis also facilitated the assessments for the model construct validity (Chapter 4). CFA was also conducted, which served to confirm the nine-factor, 31-item GCS scale. Further, regression analyses have been done to provide predictive validity of the newly developed GCS measure was undertaken. The findings indicated the attainment of high GCS items scores across the two samples; thus, providing evidence for the robustness of the GCS scale across samples and cultures. Furthermore, adequate Cronbach’s alphas were reported for each of the proposed GCS factors, in addition to the overall GCS scale. Part III provides the contributions, limitations and future research directions arising from this thesis (Chapter 5). The chapter commenced with an overview of key contributions of this research, followed by an overview of the key research limitations and directions for future research.
green consumption scale, structural equation modelling, scale development, Consumers|xAttitudes, Consumers|xResearch, Green marketing