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dc.contributor.authorMcCall, Julie Elizabeth
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-09T01:49:29Z
dc.date.available2019-01-09T01:49:29Z
dc.date.issued1985
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10179/14178
dc.description.abstractFallow deer (Dama dama) are rapidly gaining in popularity in New Zealand as a farmed species for venison production. Subjective observations suggest that venison from fallow deer up to 2 years of age has the desirable 'leaness' characteristic. The main objective of this study was to investigate relationships between carcass weight (20-40 kg), age (13, 17 and 25 months), season of slaughter {summer vs. early winter) and aspects of carcass quality in male fallow deer. Groups of male fallow deer raised on pasture near Te Puke (8 animals per group) were slaughtered at approximately 13 months (mid January), 17 months (late May), and 25 months of age (mid January). Average liveweights and carcass weights at slaughter were 43 and 25 kg at 13 months (Ml3), 47 and 28 kg at 17 months (M17), and 60 and 36 kg at 25 months of age (M25). Dressing-out percentage increased from 58.6 to 61.8% over the liveweight range of 41 to 66 kg. The pattern of tissue growth with increasing liveweight was similar to that exhibited by other meat-producing ruminants. Allometric growth coefficients for the four dissected components relative to carcass weight were: muscle, 0.85; bone, 0.62; intermuscular fat, 1.61 and subcutaneous fat, 2.85. Percentage total fat in the carcass was 7.8% in M13, 9.4% in Ml7 and 12.3% in M25 bucks. Low fat contents were accompanied by a high percentage of muscle in the carcass, 74.3% in Ml3, 71.5% in M17, 70.1% in M25, and hence high muscle to bone ratios (mean= 5.5). The mean proportion of the carcass in each commercial cut was neck, 12.6%; flank, 15.4%; shoulder, 17.8%; saddle, 15.5% and haunch, 39.4%. Allometric growth coefficients for the 5 commercial cuts relative to side weight were neck, 1.02; flap, 1.33; shoulder, 0.87; saddle, 1.04 and haunch, 0.91. With increasing carcass weight minor relative redistribution of muscle, fat and bone across the carcass cuts was detected. The decrease in the relative proportion of the carcass in the primal haunch cut was due solely to a decrease in the proportion of bone in the cut. The allometric growth coefficient of bone in the haunch relative to total side bone was 0.76. The saddle was the major site for subcutaneous fat deposition with increasing carcass weight. The allometric growth coefficient of subcutaneous fat in the saddle relative to total side subcutaneous fat was 1.26. The flank was the major site for intermuscular fat deposition with an allometric growth coefficient of 1.29 relative to total side intermuscular fat. There were no differences in the proportions of the total dissected tissues between group M17 (slaughtered in early winter) and groups Ml3 and M25 (slaughtered in summer) other than could be explained by differences in carcass weight. However, the proportion of total muscle weight in some individually weighed haunch and neck muscles were consistently lowest and highest respectively in the M17 group. The chemical composition of the dissected tissues and some individual muscles was determined. The percentage water in the muscle tissue of the M17 group was lower and the percentage protein higher than in groups M13 and M25. The lipid percentage of the fat depots was low (subcutaneous, mean= 58%; intermuscular, mean= 47%). Carcass weight explained 81% of the variation in carcass fat. Fat-depth 'C' and kidney fat weight explained a further 10.3 and 11.3% respectively, of the total carcass fat variation. Meat quality characteristics measured were colour, ultimate pH, tenderness and water-holding capacity. The major meat quality differences were between group M17, and groups Ml3 and M25. Meat colour was darker and water-holding capacity greater in Groups Ml3 and M25. This was attributed primarily to differences in conditions at slaughter. Warner-Bratzler shear (tenderness) values averaged 3.73 kg and 4.68 kg for the mm. longissimus and semimembranosus respectively. These values were lower than those reported for sheep and cattle.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMassey Universityen_US
dc.rightsThe Authoren_US
dc.subjectFallow deeren_US
dc.subjectVenisonen_US
dc.titleThe carcass composition and meat quality of male fallow deer : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey Universityen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineAnimal Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorMassey Universityen_US
thesis.degree.levelMastersen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Agricultural Science (M. Ag. Sc.)en_US


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