Developing game-based learning sequences for generalist teachers : creative practice research using the sport of ultimate frisbee : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Health Sciences at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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Over the last 30 years traditional skill-based game teaching models in physical education (PE) have gradually been supplemented by instruction under an inclusive banner of Game Centred Learning (GCL), but more specifically Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU). The uptake of this form of instruction, that is underpinned by the theoretical learning construct of constructivism, has in the main been undertaken by specialist teachers of physical education that in New Zealand (NZ), are typically secondary school teachers. Traditional behaviourist structures of technique followed by a 'game' are still the dominant context for physical PE instruction by generalist teachers in primary schools. The explanation offered for this lack of adoption is twofold. Firstly, there has been the demise of the time given for teacher training in subjects such as PE and in combination with this time reduction is the view that the method of instruction is too difficult for the undertrained generalist teacher in PE to employ. This thesis explores a Transforming Play model of game instruction (Slade et al., 2019) that suggests specialist expertise is not necessarily required to deliver constructivist-based PE lessons. It does this through an examination of the relevant literature and the creation of an artefact reflective of that model utilising a creative practice research methodology through the medium of the sport Ultimate Frisbee. This creative artefact includes an evaluated lesson sequence as well as accompanying resources, such as an instructional video on throwing technique and a mastery learning chart template. Overcoming the need for in-depth content knowledge was achieved through the presentation of the creative artefact, a full evaluation of the process that was used to create the lesson sequence, and the justification of each lesson in the sequence.
The following Figures have been removed because they are copyrighted to their source journals: Figures 2 (=Slade et al.,, 2019 Fig 1), 3 (=Kirk & MacPhail, 2002, Fig 2), and 4 (=Holt et al., 2002 Fig 2).