Hokia ki te whenua : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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Massey University
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This thesis aIms to produce a distinctive model for the sustainable horticultural development of Maori resources, primarily land. It is inclusive of tikanga Maori and indigenous production systems based on the unique body of knowledge aligned to Maori. The integration of this knowledge with western science is both argued and applied through the model itself. The hypothesis applied was that matauranga Maori relevant to horticulture and pedology can inform and add value to the future development of Maori land resources. The thesis is bui lt on a unique set of contributing knowledge bases aligned to soils and horticultural management supported by three case studies, identified through their common association i.e. whakapapa links. The format of the thesis intentionally follows science principles in structure and presentation and some assumptions are made regarding base knowledge surrounding Maori cultural factors and the science disciplines relative to soils and horticul ture. The indigenous element, including Maori knowledge, is incorporated into the model using a triadic kosmos/corpus/praxis approach. Where kosmos is applied as Te A o Miiori, corpus as miitauranga Miiori and praxis as tikanga Miiori, the relationship between each element is clear and the interpretation of the associated knowledge becomes more apparent and can be applied to cultural assessments of resources, i ncluding land. The crux of the cultural assessment model is the quality of information used to assess Maori resources, especially from the cultural perspective. The Maori cultural paradigm, traditional horticulture and pedology, and various decision systems are purposefully accessed to act as contributors to the assessment model and to highlight the diversity and quality of information land managers have at their disposal. The ability to apply a cultural layer drawn from a body of knowledge not previously included in decision models relative to land utility in New Zealand is the key point. of difference of the model. The model is discussed from the perspective of its beneficial role for future use by Maori and how it can be continuously refined to meet the needs of Maori land owners and thus contribute to the rangatiratanga of Maori.
Horticulture, Land tenure, Rural development, Rural land use, Indigenous crops, Maori, New Zealand