OBJECTIVES: To assess whether having a pet in the home is a risk factor for community-acquired urinary tract infections associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- or AmpC β-lactamase (ACBL)- producing Enterobacterales. METHODS: An unmatched case-control study was conducted between August 2015 and September 2017. Cases (n = 141) were people with community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by ESBL- or ACBL-producing Enterobacterales. Controls (n = 525) were recruited from the community. A telephone questionnaire on pet ownership and other factors was administered, and associations were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Pet ownership was not associated with ESBL- or ACBL-producing Enterobacterales-related human UTIs. A positive association was observed for recent antimicrobial treatment, travel to Asia in the previous year, and a doctor's visit in the last 6 months. Among isolates with an ESBL-/ACBL-producing phenotype, 126/134 (94%) were Escherichia coli, with sequence type 131 being the most common (47/126). CONCLUSIONS: Companion animals in the home were not found to be associated with ESBL- or ACBL-producing Enterobacterales-related community-acquired UTIs in New Zealand. Risk factors included overseas travel, recent antibiotic use, and doctor visits.
Int J Infect Dis, 2023, 128 pp. 325 - 334
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