Transfer of sustainable energy technology to developing countries as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emission : the case of Bangladesh : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Applied and International Economics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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Over the last two decades the world has been becoming increasingly concerned about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, global warming, unsustainable development, and poverty in the developing countries. The most acceptable way of mitigating GHG emission is the use of sustainable energy technology (SET) instead of fossil fuel. SET is available in the global market, but is outside the scope of availability for many developing countries. Due to the lack of economic and technical capabilities and wide-spread poverty, developing countries are unable to introduce SET independently, hence a need for appropriate assistance from developed countries. The case study was conducted in Bangladesh, one of the poorest countries in the world, with acute shortages of energy and largely disadvantaged rural population. The study assessed three energy technologies-biomass, solar, and wind-to identify the most viable options of SET for the rural Bangladesh. The appropriateness of the proposed SETs is assessed on the basis of certain criteria: availability of resources, cost-effectiveness, degree of technological complexity, matching demand and supply, and contribution to reducing GHG emission. It has been found that each SET taken separately, has its limitations. The main barrier for biomass energy technology is the availability of biomass due to scarcity of land, and hence, producing food is preferable to growing trees for fuel. The major limitations for solar and wind energy technologies are high levels of capital investment and technological complexity. The study proposes a combination of biomass, solar, and wind SETs as a long-term solution of energy crisis in the rural Bangladesh. It suggests relevant policy and types of assistance in the form of investment in education and training, machinery, spare parts, know-how etc. A brief proposal for capacity building has been prepared. It is expected that the proposed SETs will benefit sustainable development, poverty alleviation of rural Bangladesh, and the national socio-economic conditions. The study findings contribute to general knowledge, and are especially useful for developing countries.
Energy development, Environmental aspects, Technology transfer, Sustainable development, Renewable energy resources, Bangladesh, Sustainable energy technology (SET), Biomass energy technology, Solar energy technology, Wind energy technology