Population genetics, biogeography and ecological interactions of the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura) and their avian malaria parasites : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Zoology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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Massey University
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Habitat loss and redistribution of species has lead to population declines and loss of genetic diversity with serious implications to species survival on ecological and evolutionary scales. While there is no doubt that rapidly dwindling endangered populations require our immediate attention, studies on common species are equally important. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the genetic connectivity, biogeographical relationships and host-parasite interactions of a common and widely distributed bird species, mainly because we want common species to remain common. Furthermore, I illustrate how studies such as this provide invaluable comparisons for sympatric endangered species. In this thesis, patterns of genetic variation of the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura) are delineated to assess their re-colonization potential among fragmented landscapes. Using a phylogeographic perspective I show how dispersal ability and secondary contact among isolated population fragments shape the evolutionary trajectory of a species. I also determine the biogeographical relationships between the bellbird host and its malaria parasites with key emphasis on host-parasite specificity. Finally, immunological trade-offs are investigated in disease epidemiology by examining host factors that influence malaria prevalence. I show that an immense capacity for dispersal has prevented divergence and shaped the high levels of genetic diversity and connectivity in bellbirds today. However, substantial genetic differentiation among subpopulations reflects recent habitat fragmentation. Based on these findings I conclude that continued habitat loss can lead to further reductions in gene flow, despite dispersal. Though restricted to northern populations, I provide evidence that the most abundant avian malaria lineage infecting bellbirds is likely an endemic Plasmodium (Novyella). This parasite exhibits bimodal seasonality and male-biased infections, but these relationships vary among subpopulations. Malaria prevalence appears to be governed by food availability and territory stability, thus habitat disturbance has repercussions to immune phenotype. With this thesis I advocate a re-thinking of conservation strategies toward spatial planning that enables ‘natural’ secondary contact among habitat fragments. Translocation is not necessary for all species. In addition to being the first study on seasonal and host factors affecting malaria patterns in the Southern Hemisphere, this thesis makes major contributions to science by elucidating some ecological relationships that underpin the evolution of immunity.
Korimako, New Zealand bellbird, Anthornis melanura, Plasmodium, Avian malaria, Ecology, Population genetics, Biogeography