The role of job crafting in work-related coaching : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
Despite the widespread use and continual growth of work-related coaching, research has not kept pace; there is a shortage of high quality, quantitative studies. Despite some evidence to date supporting coaching’s effectiveness, less is known about how it works, what works, for whom it works, and under what circumstances it will be most effective.
In the present study, the relationships between work-related coaching, autonomy, job crafting (changes made to one’s job demands and job resources), and outcomes (self-rated performance, engagement, intention to leave, and stress) were examined, as were predictors of coaching effectiveness, as rated by coachees. Data were collected by means of an online survey and 200 participants provided useable data.
Participants who had received work-related coaching were found to be more likely than non-coached participants to attempt one form of job crafting (increasing challenging job demands), report greater engagement, and have lower levels of stress. Coaching was not found to significantly relate to more attempts at the other three forms of job crafting (increasing structural resources, decreasing hindering demands, and increasing social resources), nor to self-reported job performance or intentions to leave the organisation. Attempts at increasing challenging job demands mediated the relationship between coaching and engagement. Autonomy, however, did not moderate the relationship between coaching and attempts at any of the forms of job crafting. The number of coaching sessions and coaching that was initiated by the individual, rather than by the individual’s organisation, were both found to significantly predict coachee ratings of perceived effectiveness of the coaching. Coaching by peers/colleagues was perceived as the least effective arrangement.
Possible reasons for these findings are discussed and practical implications and potential areas for future research are proposed. The results suggest that coaching may be a useful tool for both organisations and individual clients, particularly to increase engagement.