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dc.contributor.authorCastinel, Aurelie
dc.date.accessioned2007-12-12T22:46:08Z
dc.date.availableNO_RESTRICTIONen_US
dc.date.available2007-12-12T22:46:08Z
dc.date.issued2007-12-12T22:46:08Z
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10179/523
dc.description.abstractAs part of a health survey of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (50°30’S, 166°17’E), neonatal mortality was continuously monitored at the Sandy Bay Beach rookery, from 1998/1999 to 2004/2005. The primary causes of death were categorised as trauma (35%), bacterial (24%) and hookworm (13%) infections, starvation (13%) and stillbirth (4%). During the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 breeding seasons, bacterial epidemics caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae increased mortality by three times the mean in non-epidemic years. Uncinaria spp. from New Zealand sea lion (NZSL) pups was described for the first time using morphometric criteria. It differed from the two species already described in pinnipeds, Uncinaria lucasi and Uncinaria hamiltoni, suggesting the existence of a different morphotype in NZSLs. A study on the epidemiology of hookworm infection showed that all pups up to at least three months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines and transmammary transmission was identified as the route of infection of NZSL pups. Uncinariosis as a primary cause of mortality was generally associated with anaemia, haemorrhagic enteritis and frank blood in the lumen. The relationship between hookworm burden and clinical disease could not be clearly established. The 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 bacterial epidemics at Sandy Bay Beach rookery were caused by a clonal strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae as verified by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and antimicrobial testing. Suppurative arthritis was the most common post-mortem diagnosis during the two epidemic seasons. Internal lesions were consistent with septicaemia, which explained the wide range of organs from which the pathogen was grown in pure culture. A serological test investigating the exposure of NZSLs to Klebsiella spp. showed that the large majority of pups up to two months of age did not have any anti-Klebsiella antibodies, even after the epidemics, but that almost all the adults were seropositive. In addition, passive immunoglobulin (Ig) transfer from lactating females to neonates was examined by measuring IgG levels in pups and was very low compared to terrestrial mammals although similar to other pinniped neonates.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherMassey Universityen_US
dc.rightsThe Authoren_US
dc.subjectNew Zealand sea lionen_US
dc.subjectPhocarctos hookerien_US
dc.subjectPathologyen_US
dc.subjectSeal pupsen_US
dc.subjectHookwormsen_US
dc.subjectKlebsiella pneumoniaeen_US
dc.subject.other300500 Veterinary Medicine
dc.titleCauses of neonatal mortality in the New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos Hookeri) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Pathology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealanden_US
dc.typeThesisen_US
thesis.degree.grantorMassey Universityen_US
thesis.degree.levelDoctoral
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen
thesis.degree.namePhDen_US


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