He huarahi ako : pathways to learning : the academic and cultural self-efficiency of Maori student teachers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Maori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
The present study sought to investigate the factors that affect Māori student teachers academic and cultural self-efficacy in a teacher education programme. Identifying these factors is considered important for developing appropriate teacher education programmes to better provide for this increasing population of student teachers. The target sample goup are Māori student teachers who are enrolled in the general teacher education programme at Te Kupenga o te Mātauranga. Underpinning the development of these student teachers lies an expectation that they will provide Māori input in general education schools and programmes, based mainly on the fact that they are Māori. Ensuring that these student teachers are therefore culturally competent to do so is important it success is to be achieved tor themselves personally, for Māori and for New Zealand society. A framework has been developed to assist in examining important Māori concepts in relation to teacher education. The development in Kura Kaupapa Māori teacher education programmes has meant that the pool of more culturally competent Māori student teachers has been absorbed into those programmes. There remains, however, a commitment to Māori student teachers in general teacher education to continue achievement in both Te Ao Māori (the Māori world) and Te Ao Whānaui (the wider world). This study analysed two kinds of data; a survey (of 24 student teachers) and formal interviews (of four of the survey participants). Quantitative analysis were integrated with qualitative data from the interviews. In identifying factors that affect the academic and cultural self-efficacy of these student teachers it became clear that their sense of collective efficacy was highly influential in both contexts. In the academic context however, it was given lesser emphasis than in the cultural context, as work in the academic context in the main required them to work independently. These student teachers were more inclined to work in groups, to support each others learning and to discuss tasks amongst themselves. These factors tended to develop in them a stronger sense of collective efficacy. Student teachers who had come straight from school with formal qualifications (Bursary) generally displayed higher levels of academic self-efficacy. However, many had entered college with other qualifications such as work experience or suitability for teaching and tended to have lower levels of self-efficacy in the academic context. While the majority of these student teachers claimed to be capable learners, most also claimed the need to develop skills and strategies that could help them in both the academic and cultural contexts. Achievement in Te Ao Māori (the Māori world) was for all of these student teachers a key issue. Yet, most expressed quite low levels of self-efficacy in this context. In particular, these low levels of self-efficacy were related to their competency in Te Reo Māori and Tikanga. Having high self-efficacy is said to provide higher levels of effort and perseverance in activities (Bandura, 1986). Despite having generally lower levels of self-efficacy for Te Reo Māori and Tikanga, these student teachers showed persistence and motivation in learning about their own culture. Te Reo Māori. Tikanga and Whānau proved to be key sources in the development of these student teachers' cultural self-efficacy.