Individualism/collectivism, cultural identity, and self-enhancement : a study of New Zealand Māori : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology, Massey University
The present research investigated associations among individualism/collectivism, Māori cultural identity, self-enhancement and modesty in a sample of adult New Zealand Māori. Seventy-one (55 female, 16 male) Māori tertiary education students participated in the study. A series of standard multiple regressions were performed between the dependent variables of horizontal collectivism (HC), horizontal individualism (HI), vertical collectivism (VC) and vertical individualism (VI); and the independent variables of age, self-enhancement, modesty and cultural identity. Results using ANOVA indicated the present sample had a horizontal collectivist orientation. Additionally, self-enhancement had a significant independent impact on horizontal collectivism when it was used as the dependent variable. Horizontal individualism shared a positive and significant relationship with academic self-enhancement, in addition to significant and negative relationships being found between age and academic self-enhancement. A positive and highly significant relationship was shared between vertical collectivism and modesty. Modesty and the above-average effect shared a significant and negative relationship, as did age and the above-average effect. Despite a number of procedural and measurement limitations, tentative interpretations of the findings were still possible. The implications of the findings are discussed.