Tuhoe were the last iwi to experience substantially the institutions of government authority. The negotiations between Tuhoe and the government in the 1890s resulted in the Urewera District Native Reserve Act, 1896 through which, as a matter of expediency the government appeared to grant Tuhoe a measure of autonomy. For Tuhoe the 1896 Act seemed to be a measure which would enable them to retain their autonomy, improve their economy, and adapt to the increasing contact with Pakeha society and institutions on their own terms. Tuhoe agreed to the 1896 Act because they understood it would benefit them. However, their expectations, and the promise of the Act remained unfulfilled. The 1896 Act became the means by which the government was able to extend government authority to the rohe, and eventually to alienate Te Urewera land. This thesis studies the pressures, expectations and actions of both Tuhoe and the government, and is an account of the Tuhoe struggle to remain autonomous, and the way in which the government failed to fulfill Tuhoe aspirations. 'He kotahi na Tuhoe ka kata te po'.