Te Paewai o te Rangi : a framework for measuring iwi outcomes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand
This Study is about the measurement of iwi outcomes and how progress, from an iwi perspective, might be considered. A conventional response to this question might simply reflect on established measures and indices – financial gains, land holdings, economic development opportunities or perhaps social statistics, health profiles or employment figures. However, the extent to which these types of measures, statistics, or indices match the needs and expectations of iwi is less certain. At the heart of this Study is the notion that iwi outcomes cannot easily be measured, and that while conventional tools or indicators can be useful, they may fail to capture the more subtle and less measureable aspects of iwi development. Although difficult to collect, measure, or compare, these nebulous characteristics of iwi progress may in fact hold greater relevance to the aspirations of iwi members and Māori communities.
In exploring this issue, a range of research methods and techniques have been applied, including reviews of literature, consultations, presentations, and key informant interviews. The methodological approach also garnered data from the analysis of two major tribal case studies – Ngāti Tūrangitukua (Turangi) and Ngaitai (Tōrere).
Findings from the research reveal that in many ways Māori notions of progress or development are consistent with universal markers or indicators, such as economic
growth and prosperity, social development, health and well-being. However, a range of aligned measures, indicators, or preferences also exists. Many of these are unique to Māori and can be described as culturally specific. When these culturally specific and universal measures are combined, a more comprehensive measure of iwi development is possible.
The research has resulted in a framework – Te Paewai o te Rangi - that integrates principles, outcomes, constructs, indicators, and measures relevant to iwi. The framework’s name translates loosely to the horizon that can be viewed by sea vessels navigating journey’s across the ocean. The name was suggested during korero with whānau. The name was viewed as appropriate to convey the imagery of iwi navigating their way through a multiple of contexts into the future.
The framework and measures are designed to be used alongside more conventional indicators so that a more comprehensive impression of iwi development can be obtained. It is an integrated tool in that each component is linked and consistent with broader principles relevant to measuring iwi outcomes.