An investigation of the predictors of collective efficacy in elite female athletes : a multilevel analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University
The aim of the study was to investigate potential predictors of collective efficacy using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM). HLM analyses both individual and player level effect simultaneously, and thus addresses the ongoing issue in collective efficacy research, namely the unit of analysis. The participants were 318 female elite level netball players from 31 teams. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire within 24 hours of the start of one of two national level competitions. The questionnaire included a demographic section and four measures (i.e. Perceptions of Success, Sources of Sport Confidence, Group Environment Questionnaire, and a Collective Efficacy measure developed for the present study). The analysis consisted of building three different models, in which each conformed to the procedure suggested by Bryk and Raudenbush (1992). Results suggest that the team level predictors (mean team meetings and GEQ subscales) accounted for approximately 73 % of the variance in collective efficacy. Overall, mastery orientations of the POS (at the player level), length of time spent in team meetings, and team cohesion (GI-Task subscale) (at the team level) were found to be significant predictors of collective efficacy. The results do not support Spink (1990b) who found the social aspects of team cohesion to be related to collective efficacy, although these results may have been due to Type I error. However, the results support previous research by Paskevich, Brawley, Dorsch and Widmeyer (1999) who found task related aspects of team cohesion to be related to collective efficacy. In the present study, collective efficacy was found to be a team level characteristic, and psychologists should keep this in mind when developing and training sports teams.