Gender roles in environmental household waste management : a case study in Palmerston North, New Zealand : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in the Institute of Development Studies at Massey University
This research examines the roles of gender in environmental household waste management in New Zealand. Gender activities play an important role in environmental household waste management as shown by the Household Survey 2000. The survey result confirmed that a clear understanding of the perceptions of both men and women is required in managing the sustainable environmental household waste management. Educational level, occupational status, and demographic characteristics are key factors in determining household waste management strategies in order to maintain a sustainable environment in New Zealand. This study was carried out in Palmerston North. The objectives were to: Explore the relationship between gender; household waste management and environmental sustainability to identify whether there are gender differences in environmental management practices. In addition this study examines household waste management practices in Palmerston North and to investigate ways of improving household waste management practices in New Zealand. Data analysis was based on 266 households by survey questionnaires. Results showed that household waste management practices are influenced by the demographic factors age, gender, education occupation and income level. The results also show that women, rather than men, handle household waste. Female participation was mostly involved in recycling, composting and landfill activities. The final research results show that: Women's participation was found to be higher than that of men in managing household waste. Demographic characteristics appear to have a direct relation to gender and household waste management. There is a positive relationship between socio-economic status (education, occupation and socio-economic class) and household waste management. Based on the research results, different types of policy implications, suggestions and recommendations are addressed to improve environmental household waste management in Palmerston North, New Zealand.