Values ; the content and structure of values held by New Zealand student teachers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in psychology at Massey University
A new theory concerning the universal content and structure of values was proposed by Shalom Schwartz and his colleague, Wolfgang Bilsky (1987, 1990). A value survey, based on the Rokeach Value Survey (1973), was developed to measure 56 values and Schwartz (1992) reported empirical support from 40 samples for theoretical components. From 3 universal requirements, (1) the needs of people as biological organisms, (2) the requisites of coordinated social interaction, and (3) the survival and welfare of groups, Schwartz (1992) empirically derived 10 motivational types of values: universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, security, power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation and self-direction. The values were also mapped according to the interests they serve (individualistic or collectivistic or both), their conflicts and compatibilities, and the types of goals to which the values refer (terminal or instrumental). The present study examined the theory in a New Zealand setting using a modification of the Schwartz Value Survey and investigated the value priorities of males and females and Maori and Pakeha. Participants were 311 student teachers from North Island Colleges of Education, 269 (86.5%) were female and 42 (13.5%) were male. There were 50 (16.1%) Maori participants, 261 (83.9%) non-Maori, including Pakeha, Pacific Islanders, Asians and "others". Their ages ranged between 51 years and 20 years. Data were analysed using the Multidimensional Scaling procedure of Guttman-Lingoes Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) and were based on Spearman rho correlations of the importance ratings assigned to values as guiding principles. The results of the study are generally consistent with the new theory (Schwartz, 1992). Partitioning the space into regions revealed 6 distinct motivational types: power, security, self-direction, hedonism / stimulation, universalism /benevolence /spiritualism and conformity /tradition. Achievement did not form a distinct region. The hypothesis concerning the interests served was confirmed and the compatibilities and conflicts hypothesis partially supported. The instrumental and terminal dichotomy was not evidenced. Cluster analysis, Single Linkage Method (Nearest Neighbour) demonstrated the hierarchical arrangement of values from benevolence to conformity to universalism to self-direction to achievement to stimulation to hedonism to power to tradition to spirituality. Security was scattered throughout the structure. Discriminant analyses were performed to separate the value importance of male and female, Maori and Pakeha. The results supported the hypothesis that males and females would show differences in importance ratings. The females rated the benevolence and spirituality values more highly than the males who prioritised a diffuse range of value types. The results of the study suggest important implications regarding value importance between the two main cultures of New Zealand and the omission of spirituality in the universal structure is discussed. Future studies of New Zealand values might include a process of whakapaakare (consultation) with Maori.