The dairy industry is in need of a cost-effective, highly reliable, very accurate, and fast measurement system to monitor the quality of dairy products. This paper describes the design and fabrication works undertaken to develop such a system. The techniques used center around planar electromagnetic sensors operating with radio frequency excitation. Computer-aided computation, being fast, facilitates on-line monitoring of the quality. The sensor technology proposed has the ability to perform volumetric penetrative measurements to measure properties throughout the bulk of the product.
Mukhopadhyay, S. C.; Gooneratne, C. P.; Sen Gupta, G.; Demidenko, S. N. (2006). A low-cost sensing system for quality monitoring of dairy products. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 1331-1338.