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dc.contributor.authorLoveday, SM
dc.contributor.authorCreamer, Lawrence K.
dc.contributor.authorSingh, Harjinder
dc.contributor.authorHindmarsh, Jason P.
dc.date.accessioned2011-07-15T04:33:50Z
dc.date.accessioned2016-03-06T22:26:35Z
dc.date.available2011-07-15T04:33:50Z
dc.date.available2016-03-06T22:26:35Z
dc.date.issued2010
dc.identifier.citationLoveday, S. M., Hindmarsh, J. P., Creamer, L. K., & Singh, H. (2010). Physicochemical changes in intermediate-moisture protein bars made with whey protein or calcium caseinate. Food Research International, 43, 1321-1328.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0963-9969
dc.descriptionNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Food Research International. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Food Research International,43 (2010)] DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2010.03.013en_US
dc.description.abstractThis study examined model protein bars made with whey protein isolate (WPI) or calcium caseinate and stored at 20 °C for 50 days. WPI bars remained very soft and, throughout storage, confocal micrographs showed a continuous matrix containing soluble protein and increasing quantities of glucose crystals. In contrast, calcium caseinate bars had a firm texture within 1−5 days of manufacture (fracture stress 199 ± 16 Pa) and hardened progressively during storage (final fracture stress 301 ± 18 Pa). Electrophoresis showed no evidence of covalent protein aggregation, but there were substantial changes in microstructure over the first day of storage, resulting in segregation of a protein phase from a water−glucose−glycerol phase. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) relaxometry and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments showed that water migration away from protein towards glucose and glycerol occurred 10−18 h after manufacture, lowering the molecular mobility of protein. Phase separation was probably driven by the high osmotic pressure generated by the glucose and glycerol. These results confirm that the hardening of protein bars is driven by migration of water from protein to glucose and glycerol, and microstructural phase separation of aggregated protein.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dc.subjectHigh-protein snack baren_US
dc.subjectWhey protein isolateen_US
dc.subjectCalcium caseinateen_US
dc.subjectShelf lifeen_US
dc.subjectIntermediate-moisture foodsen_US
dc.subjectMaillard reactionsen_US
dc.subjectProton nuclear magnetic resonanceen_US
dc.subjectNuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopyen_US
dc.titlePhysicochemical changes in intermediate-moisture protein bars made with whey protein or calcium caseinate.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.elements-id35667
dc.identifier.harvestedMassey_Dark
dc.identifier.harvestedMassey_Dark


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