Marine mammal tourism in the Bay of Plenty, New Zealand : effects, implications and management : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Marine Ecology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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Worldwide expansion of marine mammal tourism over recent decades has raised international concerns in terms of the effects of these tourism practices on the species they target. Moreover, the growth and success of the industry have often outpaced conservation planning, including in New Zealand. To illustrate, tour vessels have been operating for ca. 25 years in the Bay of Plenty (BOP), situated on the east coast of North Island, New Zealand. By 2010, a total of eight permits had been granted across the region. However, development of this local industry occurred without any baseline data on species occurrence, distribution, habitat use or behaviour. This study sought to assess the historical occurrence of the marine mammal species off the BOP and determine their spatial and temporal distribution. Current distribution, density and group dynamics were examined for common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) and New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri), the two most frequently encountered species in the BOP and therefore, the primarily targeted species by tour operators. The extent of anthropogenic interactions with common dolphins was investigated and their effects on dolphin behaviour examined. The number of common dolphin individuals closely interacting with tour vessels was estimated and dolphin-vessel interactions were quantified to assess repetitive encounters. In the absence of previously undertaken systematic dedicated surveys, the present study investigated the historical spatial and temporal occurrence of dolphins, whales and pinnipeds in the BOP region. The examination of opportunistic data, collected between December 2000 and November 2010 via various platforms of opportunity including but not limited to tour vessels, identified fourteen species of dolphins, whales and pinnipeds occurring in the region. Confidence criteria in successful species identification were assigned based on observer expertise, diagnostic features of reported species and percentage of records reported by observer type. Common dolphins were the most frequently encountered species, followed by killer whales (Orcinus orca), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and New Zealand fur seals, other species being infrequently encountered. A detailed examination of common dolphin habitat use revealed discrepancies with previous findings (e.g. higher use of shallower waters), possibly explained by inherent biases to the opportunistic dataset. Dedicated surveys, conducted between November 2010 and May 2013, investigated the current distribution, density and habitat use of common dolphins and New Zealand fur seals. Both species exhibited a strong seasonality with contrasting occurrence in summer and autumn for common dolphins and in winter and spring for fur seals. Dolphin seasonality is suggested to be linked to movements into deeper offshore waters and/or potentially to neighbouring regions (i.e. the Hauraki Gulf) and most likely related to foraging opportunities. Fur seal seasonality suggests that the western BOP supports a non-breeding colony and that foraging reasons may explain the species occurrence in the region. Higher density of common dolphins and fur seals identified over the shelf break and reefs can be explained by enhanced productivity. First application of Markov chain analyses to common dolphin within oceanic waters, allowed examination of the effects of tourism activities on common dolphins in the BOP. Dolphin foraging behaviour was significantly affected, as dolphins spent less time foraging during interactions with tour vessels and took longer to return to foraging once disrupted by vessel presence. Disruption to feeding may be particularly detrimental to common dolphins in the BOP open oceanic habitat, where prey resources are typically widely dispersed and unpredictable. While the overall level of tour operator compliance with regulations in the bay was relatively high, non-compliance was recorded with regards to swimming with calves and extended time interacting with dolphins. Evidence of repetitive interactions between tour vessels and common dolphins were examined using photo-identification to assess potential cumulative impacts. An estimated minimum of 1,278 common dolphin individuals were identified in the region, for which the majority (86.9%) showed low levels of site fidelity (i.e. only one encounter). At least 61.7% of identified dolphins were exposed to tour vessel interactions. However, spatial (i.e. between the western and eastern sub-regions) and temporal (i.e. daily, seasonal and annual) cumulative exposure to tourism activities was observed for less than 10% of these individuals. This is likely explained by tour operators “handing over” groups or returning to areas preferentially frequented by dolphins (i.e. presumed foraging hotspots). Due to the opportunistic methods used for photo-identification, these results are indicative only of the absolute minimum of repeated interactions common dolphins may face in the region. The present thesis represents the first comprehensive assessment of marine mammal tourism in the BOP. It offers important contributions to research and conservation in this area via the critical assessment of historical occurrence of marine mammals in the region. This thesis also provides comprehensive and detailed insights into common dolphin and New Zealand fur seal temporal and spatial distribution in the area. This can serve management agencies to implement efficient conservation plans. While identifying that tourism operations significantly affect common dolphin behaviour and repetitive interactions result in cumulative exposure, this thesis supports adaptive management and further long-term monitoring of marine mammal species in general, and in the BOP region more specifically.
Common dolphin, Marine mammals, Southern fur seals, Behaviour, Ecotourism, Tourism, Environmental aspects, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand