Te Kete Tua-ātea, Māori modelling of the future and the kaitiakitanga of water : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University, Manawatū, Aotearoa New Zealand

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This research arose from the experience of our iwi, Te Āti Awa ki Whakarongotai, struggling to control the future trajectory of the health of our water and the health of our people. We came to recognise that our political aspiration to realise our tino rangatiratanga in relation to water was strongly dependent on our knowledge capability, in particular, our capability to identify, examine and communicate the likely effects of future scenarios on our water. The aim of this thesis was to propose and operationalise a mātauranga Māori framework and futuring tools that iwi can apply in decision-making to assist them in realising the futures they wish to see for water systems. Ngā Kete o te Wānanga has been presented as a complete mātauranga Māori theoretical framework, and each kete or component has informed the generation and application of specific aspects of knowledge and the tools that are required for the kaitiakitanga of water. Te Kete Tua-uri has informed the production of a rich iwi ontology of water that provides a more in-depth understanding of what water ‘is’ from a Te Āti Awa perspective. Te Kete Aronui has informed the development and application of tools to facilitate observations across the broad iwi values of water. These include novel tools for monitoring the integrity of decision-making processes, and a survey tool for monitoring the well-being attributes of wairua and whakapapa connectivity in our rohe. The research has shown how the recognition and revitalisation of Te Kete Tua-ātea knowledge and tools as a distinct field of mātauranga Māori is particularly crucial to the practice of kaitiakitanga. This has involved developing and applying futuring tools such as quantitative models to generate knowledge about the infinite possible future scenarios for our water catchments that can be used to inform decision-making processes. The application of Ngā Kete o te Wānanga can make a significant contribution to improving the way that water is cared for in Aotearoa. The research has demonstrated the power of returning to the enduring wisdom of mātauranga Māori, and the benefits of a kaupapa/values-based, whole-of-system, future-oriented approach to water care.
Listed in 2020 Dean's List of Exceptional Theses
Appendix B: Iwi Kaitiakitanga Plan is re-used with the permission of Ātiawa ki Whakarongotai Charitable Trust. Figure 2.6 was removed for copyright reasons but is available as Carriger et al., 2016, Fig 5. Figure 5.6 is Copyright © 2018 Rosa, Profice and Collado, and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Rosa, C.D., Profice, C.C. & Collado, S. (2018). Nature experiences and adults’ self-reported pro-environmental behaviors: The role of connectedness to nature and childhood nature experiences. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1055. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01055
Te Āti Awa ki Whakarongotai (New Zealand people), Maori (New Zealand people), Science, Watershed management, New Zealand, Decision making, Kapiti Coast District, Wai Māori, Kaitiakitanga, Kaupapa, Mātauranga, Tino rangatiratanga, Māori Doctoral Thesis, Dean's List of Exceptional Theses