Heritage as part of scape : townscape, landscape, mindscape : uncovering opportunities and constraints for land use planning in adopting a cultural landscape approach to heritage protection in Aotearoa : a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Resource and Environmental Planning, Massey University

Thumbnail Image
Open Access Location
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Massey University
The Author
The aim of this research is to extend existing knowledge and thinking in respect of cultural/heritage landscape theory, and to critically review existing approaches to heritage identification and protection by district and regional planning authorities in New Zealand. The research identifies issues and constraints with current methods applied in heritage and landscape planning in New Zealand. The protection of heritage features tends to be piecemeal, concentrating on specific buildings or sites, whilst landscapes are subject to protection for unique qualities in respect of their visual, natural and aesthetic appearance, rather than for cultural meanings or depth of any historical resonance not visible to the eye. The research is of principal interest to the planning profession, although it employs terminologies of landscape and heritage from a range of fields including geography, archaeology, history and ecology. A literature review provides an account of historical and contemporary heritage landscape theory and will provide a critical appraisal of recent thinking in respect of culture, nature and the dynamics of landscape change, human perception and value systems. A critical analysis of key items of discourse of relevance to planning for heritage is undertaken, and the potential for the application of heritage landscape approaches within the context of current statutory and policy frameworks is evaluated. The analysis has been inductively coordinated to explore how a heritage landscape approach could be developed and extended as an effective tool for identification and protection of heritage landscapes in a local planning context. The research aims to clarify why protection of the 'outstanding', visible, and essentially the 'scenic' remains the conventional approach, and seeks to understand what communities stand to gain should local authorities adopt alternative methods of evaluation. The thesis posits that a conceptualisation of ancestral and cultural landscapes could underpin an effective framework for value recognition that would assist planners to sustainably manage change within landscapes and enable more participatory processes for heritage management. Significant to the application of any heritage landscape methodology therefore, would be a recognition that applying a spatial approach through a landscape lens, necessitates interpretation not just of the physical, but additionally of cultural, social, and spiritual dimensions of heritage.
Landscape protection, Land use planning, Landscape planning, Heritage planning, Landscape theory, Heritage landscape