Model development and simulating of a spinning cone evaporator : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Institute of Technology and Engineering, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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Massey University
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The idea of milk pre-concentration at the farm has attracted worldwide interest for many years. A new pilot-scale evaporator (called spinning cone evaporator), which can be operated on the farm and has a compact and efficient design, has been developed at Massey University. However, there is a shortage of knowledge on the design, operation and control of this new evaporator. The main goal of this thesis is to develop a dynamic mathematical model in order to better utilize this evaporator and make further developments. This thesis consists of three parts. Firstly, a first-principles model of a pilot scale spinning cone evaporator is developed using the sub-system modelling techniques of the evaporator from the Laws of Thermodynamics and the general mass and energy balances. The model is dynamic and includes the evaporator, the compressor, the condenser and the product transport sections. The system model describes the dynamic relationships between the input variables (cooling water flowrate, M c , speed of compressor, N comp , feed flowrate, M f , feed temperature, T f and mass composition of feed dry matter, W f ) and the output variables (outlet temperature of cooling water, T co , evaporating temperature, T e , mass composition of product dry matter, w p and product flowrate, M p ), Secondly, the evaporator model was implemented using the software package Matlab along with its dynamic simulation environment Simulink. The differential equations for the evaporator model are embedded in a block diagram representation of the evaporator system. The evaporator Simulink model is divided into three levels, the blocks at the top represent the overall model and global constants used in it. The second level contains the individual sub-systems and the bottom level elements within each sub-system. Results of the model verification are satisfactory. Finally, the model validation is presented for both steady state and dynamic comparisons. The product flowrate (except in the case of feed temperature changes) and evaporation temperature can be predicted at a given time, and the outlet temperature of cooling water and product dry matter composition can also be predicted at a steady state. It can be seen that the results predicted using this spinning cone evaporator model, which accounts for the varying concentrate flowrate and evaporation temperature with time, are in good agreement with experimental data. This model provides a valuable tool to predict performance in a spinning cone evaporator and to modify the design parameters.
Evaporators -- Design, Computer simulation