Public value creation : exploring partnerships in value capture projects in China : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

dc.confidentialEmbargo : Noen_US
dc.contributor.advisorMuhammad, Imran
dc.contributor.authorWang, Xinning
dc.description.abstractThe urban planning literature has identified a positive relationship between public transport investment and the land value of adjacent properties. In many cities worldwide, the increase in land value has been captured (called value capture (VC)) to fund public transport infrastructure and services. However, the key issue for the planning and implementation of VC is the complexity of the multiple stakeholders’ collaboration and coordination in the process, and few studies have investigated this complexity. This research aimed to fill this gap and explore how different stakeholders have worked together to plan and implement VC policies and projects in China. This research developed a theoretical framework based on public value and partnership theories. These theories provide a comprehensive strategic triangle framework to explore interdependent processes of enabling environment, operational capabilities, and goals to create public value of VC development. Based on the framework, this research proposed three types of partnerships for investigating the VC process. The political–institutional partnership analysed how government organisations and local transport agencies create an enabling political and institutional environment to take the initiative and plan for VC projects. The financial partnership focused on how local transport agencies develop partnerships with other public and private organisations to share the risks, responsibilities, and benefits of developing real estate in VC projects. The social partnership examined what role culturally sensitive communication and trust play in building relationships between local government and local communities. This research used a qualitative research approach by applying the case study method. Two Chinese VC projects, the Qianhai project in Shenzhen and the Luxiao project in Chengdu, were selected as case studies in this research. Data were collected from 55 semi-structured interviews with relevant stakeholders, and from policy and planning documents produced at the central, provincial, and local government levels, supplemented by enterprise reports, media information, and research papers. Firstly, the research found that stable and sustained political–institutional support is crucial to the initiation planning, and implementation of a VC project. Because of continuous political support, Shenzhen initially adopted the Hong Kong model but later developed its own model and institutional capacity for VC projects. In contrast, VC projects in Chengdu suffered as a result of uncertain political support, a fragmented planning framework, an insufficient land exchange market, and a lack of experience and knowledge of VC projects. Both case studies showed that creating a partnership between local government and local transport agency is vital for mobilising land resources, sharing planning power, and generating institutional innovation in land transactions. Secondly, the research illustrated that a financial partnership between local transport agencies and developers is fundamental for implementing VC projects. In Shenzhen, the local transport agency established proactive working relationships with developers, creating a flow of the resources necessary for implementing the projects. In contrast, the local transport agency in Chengdu ignored developers and worked directly with the district-level government without a competitive selection process. This process created concerns for real estate development in the later stages of implementation. Thirdly, the research identified that developing a trustworthy social partnership between the local government and the local communities is beneficial for enhancing the legitimacy of VC projects. Shenzhen adopted both top-down and bottom-up public participation processes to engage local communities. In comparison, weak communication in Chengdu led to limited community involvement and a lack of public awareness of the VC project. Both case studies showed a strong emphasis on expert opinions and little contact with non-governmental organisations in China’s VC projects. This research concluded that political–institutional, financial, and social partnerships have contributed significantly to VC planning and implementation in China. These partnerships worked together and developed an enabling environment, promoted legitimacy, and established operational capacities to deliver the VC projects. However, these partnerships were not developed in a vacuum, and macro and contextual factors played an essential part in the planning and implementation of the VC projects.en_US
dc.publisherMassey Universityen_US
dc.rightsThe Authoren_US
dc.subjectTransit-oriented developmenten
dc.subjectLocal transiten
dc.subjectLand value taxationen
dc.subjectPublic-private sector cooperationen
dc.subjectPolitical participationen
dc.subject.anzsrc330408 Strategic, metropolitan and regional planningen
dc.titlePublic value creation : exploring partnerships in value capture projects in China : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealanden_US
massey.contributor.authorWang, Xinningen_US and Environmental Planningen_US Universityen_US of Philosophy (PhD)en_US
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