A history of intergroup relations in New Zealand : a trade-off between Māori agency and inclusion : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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This thesis examines complex intergroup processes as manifested in New Zealand’s governing discourses, with a focus on discourses of the colonial era. This investigation is divided into the two following parts - 1) a quantitative examination of racial bias in New Zealand’s governing discourses and 2) a qualitative examination of rhetorical strategies used by past Governors of New Zealand, to justify colonization. In the first study, an automated language tool called NarrCat is applied to New Zealand’s ‘Speeches from the Throne’, which are political speeches representing the incoming government’s legislative agenda (163 Speeches from 1854-2014), with the aim of uncovering patterns of an intergroup bias. In this analysis, the narrative categories of cognition, intention and emotion were employed to analyze patterns of psychological perspective attributed to different groups in the texts (Māori, European settlers, and British governing elites). Results showed that British governing elites were consistently attributed the most psychological perspective, positioning them with more agency and moral responsibility than other actors in society. However, contrary to expectations, Māori were attributed more psychological perspective than European settlers. Implications are discussed through the lenses of infrahumanization theory and elitism, grounded in New Zealand’s historical context. This leads the paper to the second study, where a thematic analysis is conducted on a specific selection of Speeches from the Throne (10 speeches, from 1860-1899), to examine how past Governors defined ingroup identity in ways that justified certain beliefs and actions favourable to the colonization of New Zealand. The derived themes indicated that a shared ingroup category of British citizenship was defined by prescribing certain emotions, more specifically emotional relationships, between the people (both Māori and settlers) and governing elites. These emotional relationships were used by Governors in their rhetorical attempts to mobilize members of the shared ingroup category towards supporting the British hierarchical social order and its political agendas. These interpretations are discussed through theoretical frameworks of identity entrepreneurship and emotional climate, again situated within the historical context of New Zealand.
Intergroup relations, New Zealand, History, Group identity, Political oratory, Maori (New Zealand people), Social classes, Politics and government, 19th century, Agent (Philosophy)