Job demands, job resources and behaviour at work : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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The job demands-resources (JD-R) model postulates that job demands and job resources constitute two processes: the health impairment process, leading to negative outcomes, and the motivational process, leading to positive outcomes. The current research extended the JD-R model by including counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) as a behavioural stress reaction, and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) as a reaction to motivational resources. The study also considered the impact of job resources (transformational leadership, team communication/performance feedback) on CWB and job demands (workload, interpersonal conflict/emotional demands) on OCB. Job satisfaction was used as a mediator in these processes, with the organisational outcome of interest being intention to quit. Also examined was the buffering effect of job resources on job demands. In a sample of 221 participants working within the service industry, the study found support for a model where job demands were associated with CWB, with the relationship between workload and CWB being mediated by job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was also found to mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and CWB. Team communication/performance feedback and workload were associated with OCB and these relationships were mediated by job satisfaction. Transformational leadership was indirectly related to OCB through job satisfaction. Intention to quit was negatively related to transformational leadership as well as to OCB. The study also found that the impact of workload on CWB and OCB was attenuated by job resources. These findings have implications for organisations as they suggest that the immediate work environment could affect employee attitudes and influence whether or not employees engage in positive extra-role behaviours.
Job satisfaction, Work behaviour, Work environment, Turnover intention, Job demands-resources model