A cross-cultural content analysis of the portrayal of food and nutrition, in television advertising and programmes in New Zealand and Japan : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MBS in Marketing at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

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Massey University. Department of Commerce
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The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the food-related messages that are presented to children on New Zealand and Japanese television. A sample of 25 programmes, including advertisements broadcast on New Zealand's main free-to-air network stations and a sample of 22 programmes, including advertisements broadcast on Japan's network stations were the basis of this study. Food-related messages, content and portrayed eating behaviours were analysed. The main finding of this study suggest that the advertising content of children's programmes contain a large proportion of food advertising, largely for foods high in fat and sugar. The children's programming environments in both New Zealand and Japan also contain a large proportion of food imagery, which does include a variety of healthy foods such as meat, rice, bread, fruit and vegetables. Of more concern is that whilst Japanese children are mainly watching children's programmes, in New Zealand, children are exposed to numerous unhealthy food related imagery during programmes of which they are heavy viewers, although they are not the target audience, i.e. peak viewing periods, typically 6pm -10:30pm daily. Furthermore the unhealthy eating imagery during peak viewing periods may be contributing towards shaping children's nutrition practices. It is recommended that marketers and policy makers consider these issues in regard to the claims that advertising is a contributing factor to obesity. Due to the high incidence of eating behaviours occurring during programme content it is recommended that an advertising ban during children's programmes in New Zealand and Japan would be inconsistent, ineffective and unjustifiable.
Advertising and children, Obesity, Marketing and public policy, Advertising restrictions, New Zealand and Japan, Television