Mini trampoline jumping as an exercise intervention to improve female specific health risk factors and functional fitness in postmenopausal women : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Sport and Exercise Science, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

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Massey University
Three articles from Journal of Women's Health Physical Therapy in Appendix H (Publications) are © Academy of Pelvic Health Physical Therapy, APTA and were removed.
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Women have increased risk of functional disability compared to men, including osteoporosis and urinary incontinence. Mini trampoline jumping is a low-impact multi-component exercise that could improve functional fitness and female-specific health risk factors. Therefore, the presented research examined the 1) benefits of a 12-week mini trampoline exercise intervention on female-specific health risk factors and functional fitness; 2) women’s perceptions on efficacy of said intervention, and 3) muscle activity and metabolic responses to mini trampoline exercise in postmenopausal women. Thirty-seven postmenopausal healthy women (N=8 control, N=29 intervention; Age: 58.9 y ± 5.8; BMI: 28.64 kg/m2 ± 6.31) participated in the exercise intervention study. The 12-week exercise programme included three 40-min sessions per week. Female-specific health risk factors (i.e., bone health, pelvic floor muscle functioning, urinary incontinence) and functional fitness (i.e., aerobic fitness, walking speed, lower extremity strength, flexibility, balance) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up session. Women maintained pelvic floor muscle functioning (1% increase; p=0.31) and improved urinary incontinence symptoms (SUI score: 21% decline; p=0.01) following the intervention, compared to the control group who saw a decline of these measures (PFM functioning: 45% decrease; SUI score: 7% decline). Women significantly improved calcaneal bone mineral density following the intervention (8% increase; p=0.02); however, these improvements declined (4%) again at 3-month follow-up. Resting heart rate (8%; p=0.04) and dynamic balance (14%; p=0.01) significantly improved post-intervention. Aerobic fitness (12% increase; p<0.01), average walking speed (7% increase; p=0.01), flexibility (15% increase; p<0.01), and lower extremity strength (20% increase; p<0.01) also improved following the intervention; these benefits remained after three months. A 13-question open-ended anonymous survey examined participant perceptions after the exercise intervention. Intervention adherence rate was high with participants highlighting the social aspect of group exercise and short durations of exercise sessions. Most women would consider taking part in a mini trampoline exercise programme outside of this study. In a separate cross-sectional study, skeletal muscle activity, cardiovascular and metabolic responses for mini trampoline exercises were compared to more commonly prescribed exercises of walking and home-based strength exercises. Seventeen women (Age = 59.6 y ± 3.92; BMI= 25.5 kg/m2 ± 3.8) performed 5-min of walking, home-based exercises, and trampoline exercises; 10-min rest periods occurred between trials. Metabolic responses were higher for mini trampoline and home-based exercises compared to walking. Mini trampoline elicited higher oxygen consumption (7% gain; p=0.01) and RER response (3% gain; p<0.01) compared to home-based exercises. In summary, mini trampoline exercises provide a novel and enjoyable form of exercise for postmenopausal women to improve female-specific health, functional fitness, and metabolic health.
mini trampoline, postmenopausal, pelvic floor muscle, osteoporosis