Lost and damaged? : the roles of civil society stakeholders involved in the development of loss and damage policy and the interplay with international loss and damage negotiations : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

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Loss and damage is the impacts of climate change, when adaptation and mitigation measures fail the result is loss and damage. The loss and damage agenda aims to hold countries that were typically seen as polluters accountable for the yet unknown and undefined damages caused by climate change. The idea behind loss and damage is a step forward from the thinking of adaptation and mitigation to the idea that regardless of these two actions globally, some people/countries will still be affected by climate impacts and that these countries deserve some level of compensation/global financial support as compensation (Faruque & Khan 2013). Loss and damage is an ever-growing policy matter, political issue and lived reality for many. This thesis explores the development of loss and damage policy within Bangladesh, the first country to attempt to develop a national level policy, analysing the way in which key stakeholders are navigating national level policy development and negotiating loss and damage at the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties. The thesis research took place in two field locations: Dhaka (the Capital of Bangladesh) throughout 2018-2019, and the Conference of Parties 24 international meeting on climate change held in Katowice, Poland in December 2018. The research was conducted using qualitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews, observations of conference proceedings and document analysis. The thesis found the following key results. That the lack of an instituted loss and damage policy means that a mechanism for actions and practical steps does not exist. Bangladesh has shown a remarkable level of leadership and has the potential through a national level policy to expand this leadership role. The role of CSOs and civil society members as advocates has been pivotal in loss and damage policy briefing and development at the local level. Developing country delegates and civil society representatives have contributed significantly towards the framing of loss and damage. Loss and damage challenges the traditional perceptions of Traditional Overseas Development Assistance (ODA). The use of constructed ambiguity is one of the many tactics used to evade responsibility by the global North. The importance of justice arguments are for demanding global North countries be held accountable. The ability to develop a framework and funding structure to tackle loss and damage would largely improve current climate change policy at the national level in Bangladesh.